Black woman smiling in a field

Psalm 44:18 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

18 Our heart has not turned back,
Nor do our steps deviate from your path;

We think of some of the most notorious killers in human histories, such as serial killers,

  • Dennis Rader (the BTK Killer, murdered 10),
  • Ricardo Ramirez (The Night Stalker, murdered 13), Ted Bundy (Murdered 30-36),
  • John Wayne Gacy (Murdered 33-34)
  • Andrei Chikatilo (The Butcher of Rostov, murdered 52)
  • Gary Ridgway, (The Green River Killer, Murdered 70), and
  • Pedro Alonso Lopez (raping and killing more than 300 girls)

While the atrocities of these serial killers are horrendous, they pale in comparison to ones who are taking the everlasting lives of billions. Satan the Devil and his millions of demonic spirit creatures are those killers. The apostle John tells us in the book of Revelation, “Therefore, rejoice, O heavens and you who dwell in them! But woe to you, O earth and sea, for the devil [and his demon horde] has come down to you in great wrath because he knows that his time is short!” (Rev. 12:12) We discussed the time of this text back in chapter 1, showing that this takes place before the Great Tribulation. Satan’s objective is to “blind the minds of the unbelievers.” (2 Cor. 4:3-4) One way that he accomplishes this, “Satan himself disguises himself as an angel of light.” (2 Cor. 11:14) Satan also uses this world to cater to the fallen flesh, which contributes to some adopting his attitude, his aims, thought, speech and conduct. 1 Cor. 2:11-16) Yes, our “adversary the devil walks around like a roaring lion, looking for someone to devour.” (1 Pet. 5:8) His goal is twofold, (1) to keep the blind leading the blind, and (2) to cause the disciples of Christ to drift away, turn away, fall away, become sluggish, become hardened by the deception of sin, or to tire out. (Heb. 2:1; 3:12-13; 6:6, 12; 10:39; 12:13; Gal 6:9) It is sad to say, but he also uses pseudo-Christianity too, wolves, who are in sheep’s clothing. Not all of the 41,000 denominations that claim to be Christian are leading to eternal life.

The Father and the Son know our minds and hearts, as they created the first human couple. It was said of the Father to the Israelites, ‘for I am your healer.” (Ex. 15:26) Luke said of Jesus, that he “went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.” (Ac 10:38) Therefore, we have the help we need to become spiritually strong and to remain that way until the return of Christ. Even if we should stumble spiritually, we also have the help to regain our spirituality. There is one prerequisite, though, which is found at the beginning of Exodus 15:26, “If you will diligently listen to the voice of Jehovah your God, and do that which is right in his eyes, and give ear to his commandments and keep all his statutes.”

However, it is only by the undeserved kindness of the Father and Son that we have this protection against Satan, our own fleshly desires, as well as the world that accommodates those desires. While it is true that being born again is in but a moment, the old person took years to develop and will take some time to remove and put on the new person. When we consider that some are struggling with serious issues, which have plagued them for years, such as smoking, abusing alcohol and drugs, womanizing, gambling and so, we need not miraculously assume that they will disappear overnight. No one is perfect spiritually. The fact is, we are growing spiritually and will continue to do so until the return of Christ, at which time we will receive the perfection that was lost to Adam and Eve.

Sadly, the spark of interest that was at the beginning of our walking with God grew stagnant for many, meaning that their spiritual growth died out. They had deceived themselves that they were healed from the old person, and so they became apathetic in their prayer, personal Bible study and their application of what they were learning, as well as their Christian meeting attendance. In time, they suffered a relapse into the old person they were. In some case, they became more spiritually sick than they had been. They opened themselves up to the wiles of Satan and his demons, which are very eager to take advantage of their missteps. This should concern every one of us as we walk with God throughout this evil age we live in, as it is a battle between the light and the darkness.

The Holy Bible that we have is the inspired, inerrant Word of God, and is compared to “eye salve to anoint your eyes so that you may see.” (Rev. 3:18) This likely reminds of Jesus applied spit that he had mixed with dirt, when he miraculously healed a blind man. (John 9:1–12). At that time, he told his opponents, “If you were blind, you would have no sin; but since you say, ‘We see,’ your sin remains.” (John 9:41) Are we going to be like the Laodicean church, believing that we have spiritual insight, if we are spiritually weak, or have grown spiritually weak? Alternatively, we could recognize our spiritual apathy, ‘so that we may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding.’ (Col. 1:9) Jesus prayed to the Father, “Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.” (John 17:17) Jesus had told the Samaritan woman at the well, “true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him.” (John 4:23)

“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.” (Gen. 1:27) While we are imperfect, we still reflect the qualities of God, such as wisdom, love, and justice. Unlike the animals, we have the mental powers and ability to reason, which enables us to see the significance of our Creator’s qualities that we too possess in a small measure, and are able to use for our own good. The Scriptures describe the mental powers and ability to reason by the use of the words mind and conscience.


Having the Right Mind

The mind is the center of consciousness that generates thoughts, feelings, ideas, and perceptions, and stores knowledge and memories. It gives us the capacity to think, understand, and reason. It also gives us concentration, or the ability to concentrate. The Bible uses the term mind in several different ways. One such way is that of taking in knowledge, with the capacity to think, understand, and reason, helping us to arrive at certain conclusions. For example, we might say when we study this book, ‘I am trying to keep my mind on that Spiritual Sicknesses of Mind and Heart chapter.’ What would we mean by that statement? We would mean that we are trying to keep our minds alert, concentrating, and observant to take in all the information contained therein. This thought process is the activity of thinking, i.e., ideas, plans, conceptions, or beliefs produced by mental activity. In speaking of the Bereans, Paul said, “Now these Jews were more noble than those in Thessalonica; they received the word with all eagerness [Gr., prothumias, readiness of mind],[1] examining the Scriptures daily to see if these things were so.” Simon J. Kistemaker in Exposition of the Acts of the Apostles writes,

The reason for the openness of the Bereans lies in their receptivity to and love for God’s Word. For them, the Scriptures are much more than a written scroll or book that conveys a divine message. They use the Old Testament as the touchstone of truth so that when Paul proclaims the gospel they immediately go to God’s written Word for verification. They do so, Luke adds, with great eagerness. Note well, the adjective great indicates that they treasure the Word of God. Luke ascribes the same diligence to the Bereans as Peter does to the Old Testament prophets, who intently and diligently searched the Word and inquired into its meaning (1 Peter 1:10). The Bereans open the Scriptures and with ready minds learn that Jesus has fulfilled the messianic prophecies.[2]

Another such way that the Bible uses the term mind is the ability store the knowledge we have taken in and reasoned upon in our memories. For example, when we such things as, “I will keep that in mind,” which means that we will store them in our memory, for future recall. The apostle Paul wrote to Titus saying, “Remind them to be submissive to rulers and authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work.” This ability is yet another way that we are made in the image of God, as Jeremiah tells his readers,

Jeremiah 44:21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 “As for the smoking sacrifices that you burned in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem, you and your forefathers, your kings and your princes, and the people of the land, did not Jehovah remember them and did not all this come into his mind?



Within our mind is the capacity to think, understand, and reason on the knowledge (i.e., information in mind) which we have acquired, enabling us to make decisions. It depends on the information taken in, as to whether our decision will be wise or unwise. Paul exhorted the Corinthians that they “all agree and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be made complete in the same mind and in the same judgment.” (1 Cor. 1:10) In other words, they were to come to the same biblical truths. Paul told the Romans, “For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit.” (Rom 8:5) Those in the world, who are alienated from God, but who still have a measure of conscience, which can determine right from wrong, entertain wrong thinking on the fallen flesh, awakening wrong desires, which affects their course of action. If they entertain wrong thinking and follow wrong desires for a time, they will begin to build a mindset and a pattern of behavior. This over time, left unchecked, will eventually lead to a personality that is very much at odds with God. When an unbeliever finds God and becomes a Christian, he will need a completely new mindset and a pattern of behavior. Concerning this, Paul said,

Romans 12:2 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect.

Colossians 3:9-10 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

Do not lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man[3] with its practices 10 and have put on the new man[4] who is being renewed through accurate knowledge[5] according to the image of the one who created him,

Humans have the capacity of having various attitudes of mind. When we think of a high-minded person, this is a prideful person. Then, again, if we are thinking of a humble-minded person, this is a person, who has a modest and unassuming in attitude about himself. The latter here is the mental attitude that Jesus had. In fact, Paul counseled the Philippians to “Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus.” (Phil. 2:5) Peter also says, “Since therefore Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves with the same way of thinking.” (1 Pet 4:1) The word spirit can refer to one’s will or sense of self, or somebody’s personality or temperament. This is largely influenced by the mind.

Proverbs 25:28 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

28 As a city broken through, without a wall,
is the man that has no restraint over his spirit. [personality or temperament]

However, we are blessed with another loving gift, another mental power from our heavenly Father at the creation of Adam and Eve. Looking again at Genesis 1:27 it says, “God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them,” which means that man is born with a moral nature, which creates within him a conscience that reflects God’s moral values. (Rom 2:14-15) It acts as a moral law within. Even in imperfection, we are born with a measure of that conscience, which can be developed toward good or bad. The Word of God develops a Christian conscience. Paul told Titus,

25:28–26:2 The collection begins with three similes (25:28–26:2) on foolish actions. Lack of self-control makes one vulnerable (25:28); the one who cannot maintain such control will always be outmaneuvered by an adversary who keeps emotions in check. Giving honor to a fool is not only inappropriate (snow in summer) but destructive (rain in harvest), as the similes imply (26:1), since he may think of himself as competent and actually try to take charge. Reproaches and curses from a fool are ineffective since people are aware of the source (26:2).[6]

Titus 1:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

15 To the pure [persons with a conscience guided by the Bible], all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their mind [mental power] and their conscience are defiled.

We have to appreciate and realize that even after we take on the new person that Paul spoke of, as well as the mind of Christ, we will still be affected by our inborn leanings of a sinful nature. Really, there is a battle because waging between the two.

1:15. In Matthew 23:25–26, Jesus said, “Woe to you, teachers of the law and ‘Pharisees, you hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence.… First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will he clean.” In essence. Paul said the same thing: To the pure, all things are pure, but to those who are corrupted and do not believe, nothing is pure.

True purity resides not in the practice of ritual or in devotion to rules and regulations. Purity that God recognizes and commends comes from within, and person can attain this only through faith in Jesus Christ. Cleansed from with in, that person becomes free to live in purity, washed of all selfishness. The mind, transformed by the truth, ignites the conscience to obey God willingly in all manner of living.

Those who refuse the truth—who stubbornly exalt themselves, who believe they can attain righteousness through self-effort—are impure. Their minds continue in enslavement to false ideas, self-deceptions, and empty philosophies. In such a condition, their consciences remain damaged and dysfunctional. Both their minds and consciences are corrupted. For such individuals, nothing will ever be pure, right, or righteous because they remain defiled within.[7]

Put Off the Old PersonRomans 7:21-25 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 I find then the law in me that when I want to do right, that evil is present in me. 22 For I delight in the law of God according to the inner man, 23 but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind and taking me captive in the law of sin which is in my members. 24 Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death? 25 Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, I myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh, I serve the law of sin.

The good news is that if a person is walking with Christ and according to Scripture, he will no longer be a slave to sin. The sinful leaning will be there, but as long as it is not fed, it will not dominate his life. He will no longer have a life that feeds the beast, such as inappropriate music, television, internet viewing, associations, thinking, and so on. This will give him a clean conscience before God, knowing that he now has a righteous standing, and all his past has been forgiven, cast behind the back of God. There may come times in his life when his sinful nature will attempt to reassert itself, and he will have to take steps of dismissing any wrongful thinking, replacing it with rational Scriptural thinking, as well as intensive prayer, even speaking with a spiritually mature one within the congregation.

In v. 14 Paul reminded his readers of the obvious fact that the law is spiritual. Since it has its origin in God, it must of necessity give expression to the holiness of God’s character. In contrast, Paul acknowledged that he was unspiritual. It takes very little self-examination for the Christian to agree that our life and conduct fall miserably short of the divine expectation. Even though the believer has a new nature acquired by a spiritual rebirth, the old nature continues to exert its maleficent influence. To the church at Corinth, Paul wrote that he could not address them as spiritual but as worldly, that is, unspiritual (1 Cor 3:1). Using a metaphor from slavery he confessed that he had been sold into the captivity of sin as a slave. His times of defeat by the power of the lower nature made him feel like a slave to sin. He did not understand his own actions.98 On a regular basis he failed to carry out what he meant to do; instead he found himself doing the very things he despised.100 Acting in this contrary fashion is what it means to be sold under sin.

In the very act of violating his best intentions, Paul was agreeing that the law is a noble thing (v. 16). If it were not good, he would not have had any sense of guilt when he failed to live up to its standards. His best intentions were one with the law. He concluded that when he acted against his own wishes, it must have been the work of sin that had taken up residence in him (v. 17). It was not the real Paul.102 He was not trying to escape the responsibility for his own actions but to explain how deeply lodged within him was the old corrupt nature. In his failure to live up to his own expectations, sin had taken over and dominated his life. So he confessed that nothing good dwelt in his natural self (v. 18). The old man was totally corrupt. The desire to do the right thing was there,104 but not the power to perform it. Instead of doing the good he desired, he kept on doing the evil he did not want to do (v. 19). He concluded, in v. 20, that if he did that which was contrary to his own deepest desires, the real culprit must have been sin that lived within him. In failing to live out his best intentions, he had fallen into slavery to sin.

The experiences of life led Paul to conclude that whenever he desired to do that which was good, sin reared its ugly head. His desire to do what was right was inevitably confronted by sin’s insistence that he do the opposite. So regular was this opposition that Paul could designate it as a “law.” It was a controlling principle of life. It is true that in his inner self he joyfully concurred with the law of God (v. 22). As the psalmist put it, he was the man blessed by God whose “delight is in the law of the Lord” (Ps 1:2; cf. 40:8). This confession removes the possibility that Paul was speaking about his life before coming to Christ.

Yet at the same time that other principle (v. 23) was at work throughout his body. It was at war against his desire to obey the law of God. This basic conflict is nowhere better expressed than in Gal 5:17–18: “For the sinful nature desires what is contrary to the Spirit, and the Spirit what is contrary to the sinful nature. They are in conflict with each other, so that you do not do what you want” (cf. Jas 4:1; 1 Pet 2:11). Paul went on to say that this alien power took him captive to the law of sin at work in his members. Romans 7:23 speaks of three laws. By the “law of [his] mind” Paul referred to the principle of rational thought. Goodspeed calls it the “law of [his] reason.” It corresponds to that which Paul knew to be the right thing to do. The relationship between “another law” and “the law of sin” is quite clear; they are undoubtedly to be taken as one and the same. This “law” (read “principle”) is the propensity toward sin that arises from a person’s lower nature. So what I am by nature is in constant conflict with what I aspire to be as a child of God in whom the Spirit of God dwells.110 That conflict will never be settled until, seeing God, we shall be like him (1 John 3:2).

Caught up in this spiritual warfare, Paul cried out: What a wretched man am I! Who is able to free me from the “clutches of my own sinful nature?” (Phillips). The “body of death” was like a corpse that hung on him and from which he was unable to free himself.113 It constantly interfered with his desire to obey the higher impulses of his new nature. Who is able to rescue the believer crying out for deliverance? The answer is, Thanks be to God, there is deliverance through Jesus Christ our Lord (v. 25). Through the death and resurrection of Christ, God has provided the power to live in the freedom of the Spirit (cf. 8:2).

Verse 25b (a separate paragraph in the NIV) summarizes the entire discussion of vv. 13–24. Paul said that he himself (who he really was in Christ) had committed himself to serving the law of God (it was the rational thing to do) but that his lower nature was still a slave to the principle of sin. No modern translation captures the meaning better than the NEB: “In a word then, I myself, subject to God’s law as a rational being, am yet, in my sinful nature, a slave to the law of sin.” Although the chapter ends on this realistic observation, the positive declaration in the first part of v. 25 has prepared us for the exciting truths about to be set forth in the chapter that follows.[8]

For As I Think In My Heart_2nd EditionHaving the Right Heart

The term heart as it is commonly used in the Bible is very much related to this discussion. God is not interested in our outward appearances, but rather the inner man and woman. (1 Sam. 16:7) God’s Word tells its reader, “The refining pot is for silver and the furnace is for gold, and Jehovah tests hearts.” (Pro. 17:3) If we want to be clean in the eyes of the one who examines our heart; then, we must guard against what we take into our heart. Proverbs also says, “If you say, ‘Behold, we did not know this,’ does not he who weighs the heart perceive it? Does not he who keeps watch over your soul know it, and will he not repay man according to his work?” (Pro. 24:12) God can examine our hearts, and he can read our minds, as he knows our very thoughts, and he will know if we are indifferent toward him. The Scriptures also counsels, “Keep your heart [inner person] with all diligence, for out of it flow the springs of life.” (Pro. 4:23) The feelings of love, hate, and everything in between, flow from the human heart, which is the inner person, meaning it is about “life” and death. In other words, how we develop our heart, will be indicative of whether we receive eternal life or not.

The Bible also uses the word “heart” in such a context that it is referring to our mental power.  Moses pressed the Israelites, “Lay it to your heart [your mind] that Jehovah is God.” In addition, later he told them, “Jehovah has not given you a heart [mind] to know.” (Deut. 4:39; 29:4) Whether we are talking about the Hebrew Old Testament or the Greek New Testament, the heart is associated with our intellect and thinking. Speaking to some of the scribes, “Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, ‘Why do you think evil in your hearts?’” (Matt 9:4) We are told at Mark 2:6, “some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts.” Mark 6:52 says, “For they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.”

APPLYING GODS WORDAn overview of Scripture would reveal that God in the Old Testament was searching for right-hearted ones (Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Joshua, Daniel, Jeremiah, etc.), and in the New Testament he has his disciples searching for right-hearted ones, ones with a receptive heart (Cornelius, Lydia, Onesimus, etc.). He is very much interested in our intentions of the heart, love, reasons, steadfast-faith and affection. When we feed our minds on the Word of God, in serious personal Bible study, of the deeper things of God, as we are doing now, we are planting seeds in the soil of our heart (Matt 13:23). This strengthens us against our own imperfect flesh, the world that caters to that flesh, and against Satan and his horde of demons. When the Spirit inspired, inerrant Word of God grows in our heart, it develops the fruitage of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22-23). What may be grown in our hearts in personal Bible study, in preparation for our meetings, and the attendance of meetings will grow twentyfold if we are actively sharing Bible truths with others. Seeds of truth are reinforced and planted even deeper so doubt cannot get at them (Jude 1:3, 22). The Psalmist tells us, “Be strong, and let your heart take courage, all you who hope in Jehovah.” (Psa. 31:24, ASV) Spiritual strength and maturity are not instantaneous, like being born again; rather they are based on our buying out the time to develop them.–Proverbs 2:1-6

Those who allow themselves to remain spiritual babes (Heb. 5:12-6:1) are (1) making themselves vulnerable to Satanic attacks, (2) deviation from the faith by way of human weaknesses, and (3) doubt, i.e., spiritual sickness. While it is true that “the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers,” he also has the ability to close the mind of believers (1 Pet. 5:8), if he is given entry through the wall that protects us, a wall of protection, which exists only through the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. (Job 1:10-12) We ‘were once alienated and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds,’ have now been reconciled to God (Col. 1:21), “to present you holy and blameless and above reproach before him.” (Col. 1:22) Remember Adam and Eve, who were perfect in mind and body, and had the natural desire toward good. Yes, we do well to heed the words of Paul to the Corinthians and the Ephesians,

2 Corinthians 11:3 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

But I am afraid that, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, your minds will be led astray from a sincerity and pure devotion to Christ.

Ephesians 6:14 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

14 Stand firm, therefore, with your loins girded[9] about with truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness,

Ephesians 6:17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.


11:3. As determined as he was to fulfill this promise, Paul was also afraid that the Corinthians might be led astray from … sincere and pure devotion to Christ. Prior to Christ’s return, the church is betrothed to him, but the possibility of infidelity and annulment still exist. Paul’s responsibility was to help the church remain sincere and pure in its devotion so the marriage would eventually be consummated.

Once again, Paul drew from the prophecies of Hosea, who spoke of Israel’s apostasy as sexual infidelity (Hos. 2:2–13). This analogy was appropriate in the days of Hosea because many Israelites expressed their apostasy by joining fertility rituals. In a similar way, the Corinthians were tempted by the immoral practices of Corinthian culture.[10]

6:14. After instructions to put on the full armor of God and the promise of the power of God in victory over the devil, Paul specifically describes the various pieces of armor. The belt of truth pictures the large leather belt the Roman soldier wore. It held other weapons and kept his outer garments in place. To put on the belt of truth can be understood as accepting the truth of the Bible and choosing to follow it with integrity.

The breastplate of righteousness pictures the metal armor in the shape of a human torso common to the Roman uniform. To put on the breastplate can be understood as choosing not to harbor and nurture known sin. It is striving to be like Christ and live according to his ways of righteousness.

6:15. Feet fitted with the readiness pictures the hobnailed shoes which kept the soldiers footing sure in battle. To put on these shoes could be understood as believing the promises of God in the gospel and counting on them to be true for you. Faith in these promises yields peace in the Christian’s life.

6:16. The shield of faith pictures the small, round shield the Roman soldier used to deflect blows from the sword, arrow, or spear of the enemy. To take up this shield can be understood as rejecting temptations to doubt, sin or quit, telling yourself the truth and choosing on the basis of the truth to do the right thing.

6:17. The helmet of salvation pictures the Roman soldier’s metal protective headgear. It does not refer to our salvation in Christ. First Thessalonians speaks of the helmet of the “hope of salvation,” which is probably a parallel idea. That being the case, taking the helmet of salvation could be understood as resting our hope in the future and living in this world according to the value system of the next.

The sword of the Spirit pictures the soldier’s weapon sheathed to his belt and used both for offensive and defensive purposes. Taking the sword of the Spirit—defined for us as the Word of God—can be understood as using Scripture specifically in life’s situations to fend off attacks of the enemy and put him to flight. We see the example of Jesus using the Scripture this way in Matthew 4:1–11.[11]

Notice the words of the Psalmist as well,

Psalm 139:23-24 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

23 Search me, O God, and know my heart;
Examine me, and know my anxious[12] thoughts;
24 And see whether there is in me any painful way,[13]
And lead me in the everlasting way

139:23–24 We have come to the conclusion of the psalm. The psalmist has come full circle (see vv. 1–3), only this time he will petition the Almighty God whom he has described throughout the psalm. Search me, O God, and know my heart; test me and know my anxious thoughts. The word “thoughts” in verse 2 (רֵעַ, rēa˓, “want, purpose, thought”) is quite different from this word “anxious thoughts” (שַׂרְעַפִּים, śar˓appîm, “disturbing, disquieting thoughts,” cp. Ps 94:19). The psalmist is petitioning God for something he knows God already knows! (see vv. 1–2). He wants the truth to be known. See if there is any offensive way in me (v. 24a; cp. v. 3). The term “offensive” is a translation of עֶצֶב (˓eeb, “hurt, pain”). But the word in the Hebrew text is עֹצֶב, ˓ōṣeb, which can mean “false god” or “agony.” If it is the “way of an idol or false god” (some form of pagan cult practice; cp. Jer 2:23; Isa 48:5), then Holladay’s view (Kraus et al.) is probably correct. Labeling the psalm as a “hymnic declaration of innocence” would correspond with other claims of innocence in the psalms (see Ps 7:3–5; 18:20–24; 101:1–8). The only way to go is God’s way—and lead me in the way everlasting (v. 24b). For the psalmist the doctrines of the omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence of God are not just a teaching, it is a lifestyle as one walks with a holy and righteous God. Indeed, it can be fearful, and fleeing or hiding may on occasion be an instinctive desire or impulse, but ultimately “the everlasting way” can only be found with God. Paul wrote: “Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known” (1 Cor 13:12b). God knows my name.[14]





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The world that you live in today has many real reasons to be fearful. Many are addicted to drugs, alcohol, bringing violence into even the safest communities. Terrorism has plagued the world for more than a decade now. Bullying in schools has caused many teen suicides. The divorce rate …

JOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the WorldJOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the World

John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has also been called the “Gospel in a nutshell,” because it is considered a summary of the central theme of traditional Christianity. Martin Luther called John 3:16 “The heart of the Bible, the Gospel in …

THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …


Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …


DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

Christian Apologetics


How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …


Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …


Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …


church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …


Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White Jr., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: T. Nelson, 1996), 508.


[3] Or old person

[4] Or new person

[5] Epignosis is a strengthened or intensified form of gnosis (epi, meaning “additional”), meaning, “true,” “real,” “full,” “complete” or “accurate,” depending upon the context. Paul and Peter alone use epignosis.

[6] Duane A. Garrett, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, vol. 14, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1993), 211.

[7] Knute Larson, I & II Thessalonians, I & II Timothy, Titus, Philemon, vol. 9, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 347.

[8] Robert H. Mounce, Romans, vol. 27, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1995), 168–172.

[9] (an idiom, literally ‘to gird up the loins’) to cause oneself to be in a state of readiness–‘to get ready, to prepare oneself.’

[10] Richard L. Pratt Jr, I & II Corinthians, vol. 7, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 420–421.

[11] Max Anders, Galatians-Colossians, vol. 8, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999), 190–191.

[12] Or disquieting

[13] Or hurtful way

[14] S. Edward Tesh and Walter D. Zorn, Psalms, The College Press NIV Commentary (Joplin, MO: College Press, 1999), 483–484.