Koran in hand - holy book of Muslims ( public item of all muslims )

The Qur’an is the central religious text, or scripture, of Islam. Muslims hold it to be the final revelation from God to all humanity, specifically the original Arabic version. The prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was ummi (in Muslim tradition, illiterate), and thus had never read any scriptures. Nevertheless, during the seventh century CE, from the age of 40 until his death, he received and ‘recited’ the contents. (“Recitation” is the literal meaning of Quran, sometimes spelled Koran). Muslims believe that the current written Arabic version of the Qur’an is exactly identical to what was revealed to Muhammad (also spelled ‘Mohammed’), and that from his first revelation in the Cave of Hira to the last 23 years later, the Divine message was conveyed through the angel Gabriel. The Qur’an presumes the reader knows about the main events in Jewish and Christian scriptures (the Jewish Bible and the Christian New Testament), which are considered precursor revelations.[1]

The Quran is the Islamic holy book: the sacred text of Islam, believed by Muslims to record the revelations of God to Muhammad throughout the last 23-years of his life. These 1.6 billion Muslims believe that the Quran is inspired in the same sense that the Bible was inspired. It does make mention of many persons that are in the Bible, such as Adam, Noah, Moses, Jesus, as well as historical accounts such as the flood. Muhammad died in 632 C.E. at the age of 62. Muhammad’s followers compiled after his death. The Quran claims to corroborate the inspired Word of God, that is, the Bible.

Sura 5:46-48 The Holy Qur’an

46 And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah. 47 Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel. 48 To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the Truth that hath come to thee. To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah. it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute;

The God of the Bible, the Creator of the heavens and the earth “is not a God of confusion,” but rather he is a God of reason and order. (1 Cor. 14:33; Isa. 1:18; Rom. 3:4) This is the very God when it comes to the thirty-nine books of the Hebrew Old Testament and the twenty-seven books of the Greek New Testament. Sixty-six individual books were written over a 1,600-year period by 40+ authors, from shepherds, tax collector, a physician, a general, fishermen, all walks of life. Yet, when, they are all compiled together to make one great book, there are no errors, mistakes, or contradictions in the originals. They are all one in agreement. Not only are the twenty-seven NT books harmonious and confirmatory with one another but they are harmonious and confirmatory with the OT as well.

In fact, Jesus made this very point to the Jewish religious leaders, when he said, “You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; and it is these that bear witness about me.” (John 5:39) And that is why the Beroeans were commended, Paul saying of them, “these were more noble-minded than those in Thessalonica, who received the word with all eagerness,[2] examining the Scriptures daily to see whether these things were so.” (Ac 17:11) Then, we have the apostle Paul counseling young Timothy, “Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a workman who does not need to be ashamed, rightly handling[3] the word of truth.” (2 Tim. 2:15) Paul also told Timothy,

2 Timothy 3:14-17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

14 You, however, continue in the things you have learned and were persuaded to believe, knowing from whom you have learned them, 15 and that from infancy[4] you have known the sacred writings, which are able to make you wise for salvation through trust[5] in Christ Jesus. 16 All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17 so that the man of God may be fully competent, equipped for every good work.

2 Peter 1:21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)

21 for no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men carried along by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.

The Bible in the original manuscripts and in a good and accurate translation is in harmony between each of the sixty-six books. The Old and the New Testament confirm that they both are the Word of God, authentic and true, inspired and fully inerrant. Therefore, we should see the same thing from the Quran, since it and its followers claim that it too is divine inspiration. The Quran should be harmonious with and confirmatory of the previous revelation, such as the New Testament and the Old Testament before that.

First, again, we must reiterate that neither the Bible, nor the Quran can be judged based on its followers, nor its follower’s interpretation of these books. Just because Islam has used the suras within the Quran to murder and conquer people for years is not proof within itself necessarily that the Quran is not the inspired book that they claim. The same is true with the Bible as well, just because there are centuries of Christians murdering and torturing their own people based on their warped interpretation of the Scriptures. However, even having said that, there is an exception to this point, if (1) the killing is not contained within a historical period but rather open ended indefinitely, nor (2) justified. You see the killing in the Bible is directed to take place at a certain time and to a certain people and is not ongoing. It was also just and righteous. Therefore, in general, a people’s misinterpretation of a book for evil ends is not grounds for dismissing the book itself.

tetragram

Concerning the Divine Name

For example, “Jehovah” or “Yahweh”[6] (Heb., הוהי, YHWH), God’s personal name, initially occurs in Genesis 2:4. The ultimate disgrace that modern translators render to the heavenly Father of the Holy Scriptures is the elimination or the disguising of his personal name. In fact, His name occurs in the Hebrew text 6,828 times as הוהי (JHVH), usually referred to as the Tetragrammaton (i.e., “having four letters”). By retaining the name “Jehovah,” the UASV has remained faithful to the original-language texts and have not followed in the footsteps of those who would of substituting titles such as “Lord,” “the Lord,” “Adonai” or “God” for the personal name of the Father, the Tetragrammaton. Even Christ Jesus and his followers spoke of the importance of the Father’s personal divine name. (John 17:4, 6; 18:37; Acts 2:21; 15:14; Rom. 10:13; See Joel 2:32) True, we have no Greek NT manuscripts with the divine name in it but then again, we have no originals of those manuscripts either. We should note that the first-century era is when the Jews were starting to remove the divine name from their manuscripts. Therefore, we can understand how the Christian copyists in the second-century C.E. may have decided to use the Nomina Sacra.[7] It should be noted that the ancient manuscripts of the Greek Septuagint contain the divine name show that the early Christians were aware of the divine name, as the NT authors quote from it and the early Christians used the Septuagint to the point that the Jews stopped using it and went back to the Hebrew text. The Septuagint is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible made between 280 and 150 B.C.E. to meet the needs of Greek-speaking Jews outside Palestine. Here is how the Father himself feels about his personal name.

Isaiah 42:8 American Standard Version (ASV)

8 I am Jehovah, that is my name; and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise unto graven images.

Malachi 3:16 American Standard Version (ASV)

16 Then they that feared Jehovah spake one with another; and Jehovah hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before him, for them that feared Jehovah, and that thought upon his name.

Micah 4:5 American Standard Version (ASV)

5 For all the peoples walk everyone in the name of his god; and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God for ever and ever.

Proverbs 18:10 American Standard Version (ASV)

10 The name of Jehovah is a strong tower; The righteous runs into it, and is safe.

Joel 2:32 American Standard Version (ASV)

32 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of Jehovah shall be delivered; for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those that escape, as Jehovah hath said, and among the remnant those whom Jehovah doth call.

Therefore, again, the personal divine name appears in the Hebrew Old Testament 6,828 times and both Christ Jesus and New Testament authors highlight the importance of the divine name. What about the Quran? Even though both the Old Testament and the New Testament highlight the importance of the Father’s divine name, there is not one single reference in the Quran. Allah corresponds, in Hebrew, to ’Elo·him´ (a title, “God” or “god,” not a personal name), not Jehovah. Allah is not the personal name of God; it is the Arabic word for God.

Concerning Original Sin

The Bible teaches Adam sinned, and all of humanity have inherited that sin, as we all are born into born into sin and imperfection.

Genesis 2:16-17 says, “God commanded the man, saying, “From every tree of the garden you may freely eat, from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat,[8] for in the day that you eat from it you shall surely die.”[9] Genesis 3:6 says, “So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desirable to make one wise, and she took of its fruit and ate, then she also gave some to her husband when with her, and he ate.” Genesis 3:19 says, “By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” Genesis 3:22-24 says, “God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil; and in order that he may not put his hand out and take fruit also from the tree of life and eat and live forever.” Therefore, Jehovah God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken. So he drove the man out, and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim and a flaming sword that turned every way to guard the way to the tree of life.” 2 Chronicles 6:36, “… for there is no man who does not sin …” Psalm 51:5 says, Look, I was brought forth in error, and in sin did my mother conceive me.” Ecclesiastes 7:20 says, “For there is no righteous man on earth who always does good and never sins.” Job 14:4 says, “Who can produce someone clean from someone unclean? No one can.” Romans 3:23 says, “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.” Romans 5:12 makes it all very clear, “Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men,  because all sinned.” Romans 6:23 says, “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift[10] of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” 1 Corinthians 15:21-22 says, “For since death came through a man [i.e., Adam], resurrection of the dead also comes through a man [i.e., Jesus Christ]. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive.” 1 John 1:8 says, “If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.”

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD

Notice these truths that run from throughout the Old Testament and into the New Testament: (1) sin entered into the world through one man, Adam, (2) by his rebelling against the sovereignty of God, and (3) all of humanity is born into sin.  Yes, (4) we are all are conceived in sin, (5) so death has spread to all humans, and (6) no imperfect human can deliver us from death (7) because the wages of sin is death. What about the Quran? Islam teaches that each person is born in a state of spiritual purity, but upbringing and the allure of worldly pleasures may corrupt us.  Nonetheless, sins are not inherited and, for that matter, not even Adam and Eve will be punished for their sins, for God has forgiven them.  And how can humankind inherit something that no longer exists?  No, Islamicly speaking, all of us will be judged according to our deeds, for “…man can have nothing but what he strives for.” (Quran 53:38–39) In addition, “Who receives guidance, receives it for his own benefit: who goes astray does so to his own loss: no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another …” (Quran 17:15) Each person will bear responsibility for his or her actions, but no infant goes to hell for being unbaptized and burdened with sin as a birthright—or should we say a birth wrong?[11] As for inherited sin from Adam, the Quran teaches that Adam repented and was forgiven for his sin. “Then Adam received Words (of forgiveness) from his Lord, and He accepted his repentance. Verily, He is the One Who repeatedly accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.” (Quran 2:37) “Then they both ate of that tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their covering.  Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray.  Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness and gave him guidance.” (Quran 20:121-122) These thoughts are completely contrary to the Bible.

Concerning Salvation

The Bible is quite clear that we need the ransom sacrifice of Jesus’ Christ to cover our (1) inherited sin, (2) human imperfection, and (3) human weaknesses, which is freely given to all who accept it. Matthew 20:28 says, “the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his soul as a ransom for many.” John 3:16 says, “For God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, in order that everyone trusting[12] in him will not be destroyed but have eternal life.” Romans 6:23 says, “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift[13] of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” 1 Corinthians 15:21-22 says, “For since death came through a man [i.e., Adam], resurrection of the dead also comes through a man [i.e., Jesus Christ]. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive.” Ephesians 2:8-9 says, “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not from works, so that no man may boast.” Romans 3:20, 24, 27-28 say, “because by the works of law no flesh will be justified in his sight; for by law comes the accurate knowledge[14] of sin. Being justified as a gift by his grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus. Therefore, where is boasting? It has been excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith. For we consider a person to be justified by faith apart from the works of the law.” Romans 4:4, 6, 16 say, “Now to the one who works, his wages are not credited as a gift but as his due. Just as David also speaks of the blessing on the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works: ‘Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven, And whose sins have been covered.’ That is why it is through faith, in order that it may be in accordance with grace, so that the promise will be guaranteed to all the descendants, not only to those who are of the law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all.” James 2:14, 24, 26 say, “What use is it, my brothers, if someone says he has faith but he has no works? Can that faith save him? You see that a man is justified by works and not by faith alone. For as the body apart from the spirit[15] is dead, so also faith apart from works is dead.”

Some might argue that James just contradicted the apostle Paul when actually his words compliment what Paul said. What Paul means is that salvation is a gift from God that we do not deserve, an expression of God’s grace, which he gives freely. As we already learned from the above texts on the original sin, there is no descendant of Adam (other than Jesus), who can earn salvation on his own or cover the sins of another, no matter how many good works he may carry out. Note again that salvation is a gift from God, which is freely available to all who accept it. James is not saying that a person earns salvation by their works, he means that anyone claiming that they have a genuine faith will have works that are a natural product of their faith. They will have works of obedience to God and works that are an evident demonstration that their faith is genuine. If there are not such works then, they really do not have genuine or real faith.

What about the Quran? Islam teaches that each person must earn his or her salvation. “And We have fastened every man’s deeds to his neck, and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall bring out for him a book which he will find wide open.” (Quran 17:13) “Allah has promised those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah – Islamic Monotheism) and do deeds of righteousness, that for them there is forgiveness and a great reward (i.e. Paradise).” (Surah 5:9). “And He answers (the invocation of) those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, and gives them increase of His Bounty. And as for the disbelievers, theirs will be a severe torment.” (Sura 42:26) “O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allah, He will grant you Furqan a criterion [(to judge between right and wrong), or (Makhraj, i.e. making a way for you to get out from every difficulty)], and will expiate for you your sins, and forgive you, and Allah is the Owner of the Great Bounty.” (Sura 8:29) “O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger he has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-fire and made to enter Paradise).” (Surah 33:70-71) “The bedouins say: ‘We believe.’ Say: ‘You believe not but you only say, ‘We have surrendered (in Islam),’ for Faith has not yet entered your hearts. But if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Surah 49:14). Again, these thoughts are also completely contrary to the Bible.

The twenty-seven books of the New Testament followed the thirty-nine books of the Old Testament and brought us the same revelation, the same God, the NT confirming the OT as Scripture because of the harmony and oneness of the sixty-six books together. Thus, if the Quran were also a revelation from the only true God of the former two books, it would confirm the NT and the OT by being in harmony and having a oneness as to doctrine and teachings. We could have continued with the pattern above showing how the OT and NT of the Bible carry the same doctrinal points because they are from the same one true God but the Quran is at odds with these Bible teachings. We could have talked about how the Bible says that Satan the Devil is a fallen angel (Isa. 14:12-15; Gen. 3:1-5; Job 1:8-11; Rev. 12:9; John 8:44), while Quran says that Satan is not a fallen angel but a fallen Jinn, an Islamic magic spirit that can take on various human and animal forms, (Surah 2:34; 7:12; 15:27; 55:15). The Bible mention many miracles that thousands of humans were eye-witnesses of (1 Cor. 15:3-5, etc.), while there are no miracles recorded in the Quran, except the claim that the Quran is a miracle. The Bible makes numerous prophecies (Isaiah 53; Micah 5:2, etc.), while the Quran has no prophecies. The Bible says that Jesus rose from the dead, with hundreds of witnesses to this fact (John 2:19-20; 1 Cor. 15:3-8), while the Quran says that Jesus did not rise from the dead. The Bible says that Jesus was the Son of God (Mark 1:1), while the Quran says that Jesus was not the Son of God (Sura 9:30).

Is the Bible Corrupt?

Islam and Muslims believe that parts of the Bible are the inspired Word of God but believe that it became distorted over time through scribal activity (tahrif).[16] Muslims believe that many things were added to and removed from the Bible’s text, making it corrupt. What if I told you this were true? Before we talk about that, we have a contradiction with the Islamic claim. In the seventh-century C.E., the Quran did and does confirm previous Scriptures as they were originally given. Yet, later Islamic scholars make the argument that the Bible texts are corrupt, so the Bible is corrupt and not to be trusted. The only problem with that is; the Bible texts were corrupt in the seventh-century when they were confirmed by Muhammad and his followers as previous Scriptures as they were originally given. This would mean that Muhammad and those who allegedly penned and compiled the so-called Quran revelations that touch on so many Bible references did so from corrupt texts. Therefore, what would that make the Quran?

What is left out of this equation is step three in the historical process. Let us just use the New Testament text as an example.

  • Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Peter, Paul, James and Jude pen twenty-seven books while being moved along by Holy Spirit. There are no errors, mistakes, contradictions or the like. It is the inspired, fully inerrant, authoritative and true Word of God.
  • Many hundreds of thousands of copyist errors entered the New Testament texts over the next 1,500 years of scribal copying because scribes were not inspired or moved along by Holy Spirit. The New Testament text had become corrupt.
  • Over the next 500 years, literally, thousands of textual scholars used tens of thousands of original language manuscripts, versions, and patristic quotations to restore the Greek NT text to its original state.[17]

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT_1410-2250The facts are clear here. (1) The thirty-nine books of the Old Testament were and are the inspired fully inerrant word of God. (2) The twenty-seven books of the New Testament were and are the inspired fully inerrant word of God, which confirm the Old Testament. (3) The Quran confirms both the Old and the New Testament in its statement that the Bible is the Scriptures as they were originally given; however, (4) it does not confirm anything by the things written therein because it was/is not inspired, nor is it harmonious and one with the Old and New Testament. (5) There were no miracles to confirm this supposed new revelation or this new Islamic way to God. (6) Islam has no evidence to corroborate that the Quran was a miracle. (7) The Quran was no literary masterpiece. If anything, it was just the opposite. (8) The Quran was not written in perfect Arabic. There is no evidence that the Quran is the third installment of the inspired, fully inerrant Word of God. (9) Islam using the corruption period of the text of the Bible in an attempt to sidestep the above problems, without ever mentioning the restoration part of the history is dishonest and disingenuous. (10) Islamic scholars keep the average Muslim ignorant to these above truths. The fact that the Quran does not conform to or confirm previous Scripture does not lie with the supposed corruption of the Biblical text but lies with the Quran itself.

[1] The Holy Qur’an – blogspot.com. (June 01, 2017) http://zedquran.blogspot.com/

[2] Or with all readiness of mind. The Greek word prothumias means that one is eager, ready, mentally prepared to engage in some activity.

[3] Or accurately handling the word of truth; correctly teaching the word of truth

[4] Brephos is the period of time when one is very young–‘childhood (probably implying a time when a child is still nursing), infancy.

[5] Pisteuo is “to believe to the extent of complete trust and reliance—‘to believe in, to have confidence in, to have faith in, to trust, faith, trust.’

[6] This book is not going to get bogged down in a debate over whether Jehovah and Yahweh is the correct rendering of the Father’s divine personal name. We will just state plainly that Jehovah was used a thousand years before the Jehovah’s Witnesses ever started using that rendering, or the Bible scholars went to the Yahweh rendering. It was in William Tyndale’s English translation, it was in the King James Version (Ex 6:3; Ps 83:18; Isa 12:2; 26:4.), and the 1901 American Standard Version. It was commonly used up until the twentieth century.

https://christianpublishinghouse.co/2016/11/01/is-the-fathers-personal-name-important/

[7] Nomina sacra (singular: nomen sacrum) means “sacred names” in Latin and refers to the Christian scribal practice of abbreviating several frequently occurring divine names or titles, especially in Greek manuscripts of Holy Scripture. A nomen sacrum consists of two or more letters from the original word spanned by an overline. Metzger lists 15 such expressions from Greek papyri: the Greek counterparts of God, Lord, Jesus, Christ, Son, Spirit, David, Cross, Mother, Father, Israel, Savior, Man, Jerusalem, and Heaven. These nomina sacra are all found in Greek manuscripts of the 3rd century and earlier, except Mother, which appears in the 4th. Nomina sacra also occur in some form in Latin, Coptic, Armenian (indicated by the pativ), Gothic, Old Nubian, and Cyrillic (indicated by the titlo).

Nomina Sacra_500

[8] Lit eat from it

[9] Lit dying you [singular] shall die. Heb moth tamuth; the first reference to death in the Scriptures

[10] Lit gracious gift; Gr kharisma

[11] Original Sin – The Religion of Islam. (May 31, 2017) https://www.islamreligion.com/articles/1776/original-sin/

[12] Believe, faith, Trust in: (Gr. pisteuo) If pisteuo is followed by the Greek preposition eis, (“into, in, among,” accusative case), it is generally rendered “trusting in” or “trust in.” (John 3:16, 36; 12:36; 14:1) The grammatical construction of the Greek verb pisteuo “believe” followed by the Greek preposition eis “into” in the accusative gives us the sense of having faith into Jesus, putting faith in, trusting in Jesus.–Matt. 21:25, 32; 27:42; John 1:7, 12; 2:23–24; 3:15–16, 36; 6:47; 11:25; 12:36; 14:1; 20:31; Acts 16:31; Rom. 4:3.

[13] Lit gracious gift; Gr kharisma

[14] Epignosis is a strengthened or intensified form of gnosis (epi, meaning “additional”), meaning, “true,” “real,” “full,” “complete” or “accurate,” depending upon the context. Paul and Peter alone use epignosis.

[15] Or breath

[16] Tahrif is an Arabic word that means “distortion, alteration” and is used by Muslims to describe how the Jews and Christians have altered the revealed books, specifically those that make up the Torah (Tawrat), the book of Psalms (Zabur) and the Gospels (Injil).

[17] THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism by Don Wilkins and Edward D. Andrews

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