Bible Is Authentic and True

Edward D. Andrews

That is to say, once a scribe changes a text—whether accidentally or intentionally—then those changes are permanent in his manuscript (unless, of course, another scribe comes along to correct the mistake). The next scribe who copies that manuscript copies those mistakes (thinking they are what the text said), and he adds mistakes of his own. The next scribe who then copies that manuscript copies the mistakes of both his predecessors and adds mistakes of his own, and so on. The only way mistakes get corrected is when a scribe recognizes that a predecessor has made an error and tries to resolve it. There is no guarantee, however, that a scribe who tries to correct a mistake corrects it correctly. That is, by changing what he thinks is an error, he may in fact change it incorrectly, so now there are three forms of the text: the original, the error, and the incorrect attempt to resolve the error. Mistakes multiply and get repeated; sometimes they get corrected and sometimes they get compounded. And so it goes. For centuries. Misquoting Jesus (p. 57)

Ehrman is correct in his assessment of human error, and that a scribe copying 138,020 words is bound to make many scribal errors. In addition, the next scribe to use this copy as an exemplar, will make his own copying errors, and incorporate the ones from his exemplar. Moreover, a scribe may attempt to correct what he perceives to be an error, which is not, and actually add an error himself. Generally speaking, then, the further removed the manuscript is from the original, the more errors it will contain. However, you may have a manuscript that was copied in the twelfth-century, but the scribe was using a fourth-century manuscript, meaning that this twelfth-century manuscript will have fewer errors than another twelfth-century that was copied from an exemplar that was created from a line of manuscripts through all those intervening centuries.

This is a textually oriented religion whose texts have been changed, surviving only in copies that vary from one another, sometimes in highly significant ways. The task of the textual critic is to try to recover the oldest form of these texts. This is obviously a crucial task, since we can’t interpret the words of the New Testament if we don’t know what the words were. Moreover, as I hope should be clear by now, knowing the words is important not just for those who consider the words divinely inspired. Misquoting Jesus (p. 70).

THE EARLY CHRISTIAN COPYISTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Making and Copying of the New Testament Books by Edward D. Andrews

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Again, Ehrman is correct, and it is well appreciated that he uses the adverb “sometimes,” as opposed to “many times.” There are variations within the manuscripts that are “significant” and have a bearing on the text. While the above is correct, it all depends on what a person’s perceived goals are before he considers such concepts. A number of textual scholars are not trying to “recover the oldest form,” but are trying to recover the original. Yes, the task is “crucial.” Why? Because of the reason offered by Ehrman, we “can’t interpret the words of the New Testament if we don’t know what the words were.” However, only on a handful of texts out of 7,956 verses, are we talking about a level of ‘significance’ being enough that they affect the text. I feel that Ehrman is trying to act as though the entire text is in doubt when the only “significant” variants that affect the text are but a handful. Moreover, those few that are “significant” (e.g., Mark 16:9-20; 1 John 5:7; Acts 8:37; John 7:53-8:11; 1 Timothy 3:16)[1], should not be viewed as affecting the Christian message or faith in the least, because the textual evidence is quite certain. Let us just consider our five examples listed above. Our resource tools are respected by textual scholarship. We will be using, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (TCGNT) by Bruce M. Metzger United Bible Societies, 1994 This work is a companion volume to the fourth edition of the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (UBS4), published by the German Bible Society on behalf of the United Bible Societies early in 1993. Here are a few words from Metzger on how they indicate the degree of certainty.

In order to indicate the relative degree of certainty in the mind of the Committee for the reading adopted as the text,[2] an identifying letter is included within braces at the beginning of each set of textual variants. The letter {A} signifies that the text is certain, while {B} indicates that the text is almost certain. The letter {C}, however, indicates that the Committee had difficulty in deciding which variant to place in the text. The letter {D}, which occurs only rarely, indicates that the Committee had great difficulty in arriving at a decision. In fact, among the {D} decisions sometimes none of the variant readings commended itself as original, and therefore the only recourse was to print the least unsatisfactory reading.[3]

We will also be using the New Testament Text and Translation Commentary (NTTTC) by Philip W. Comfort, 2008. We will not go into the textual arguments, but we will consider Metzger’s TCGNT, of how a committee viewed the degree of certainty, as well as the new work by Comfort, NTTTC.

Mark 16:9-20:[4] TCGNT and NTTTC say it is certain that this ending is not original, and neither are the other three endings and that Mark ended abruptly in verse 8.

1 John 5:7: TCGNT and NTTTC say it is certain that John never penned the addition “for there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.”

Acts 8:37: TCGNT and NTTTC say it is certain that this verse should be omitted, “Philip said to him: ‘If you believe with all your heart, it is permissible.’ In reply, he said: ‘I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.’”

John 7:53-8:11: TCGNT and NTTTC say it is certain that the woman caught in adultery should be omitted.

1 Timothy 3:16: TCGNT and NTTTC say it is certain that this verse should read, “who was manifested.”

If you were to delve into these resources, you would discover that while these are “significant” to the text, they create no real problem, because, in every case, we are certain about the original reading. The doctrinal positions that can be established from the New Testament are not affected by these being omitted. No doctrine stands on one verse.

The Meaning of the Text is at Stake’?

It would be wrong, however, to say—as people sometimes do—that the changes in our text have no real bearing on what the texts mean or on the theological conclusions that one draws from them. We have seen, in fact, that just the opposite is the case. In some instances, the very meaning of the text is at stake, depending on how one resolves a textual problem: Misquoting Jesus (pp. 207-208)

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” {Third Edition] by Edward D. Andrews

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In short, determining the original text is neither simple nor straightforward! It requires a lot of thought and careful sifting of the evidence, and different scholars invariably come to different conclusions—not only about minor matters that have no bearing on the meaning of a passage (such as the spelling of a word or a change of word order in Greek that can’t even be replicated in English translation), but also about matters of major importance, matters that affect the interpretation of an entire book of the New Testament. Misquoting Jesus (p. 132)

If Ehrman would have stayed with “in some instances, the very meaning of the text is at stake,” he would have remained in the realm of realistic, but he had to exaggerate to the “matters that affect the interpretation of an entire book of the New Testament.” Certainly, if one removes an interpolation of twelve verses, as was done with the long ending of Mark, the interpretation of the text is affected, because it is no longer there. However, to say that the removal of an interpolation affects a whole Bible book is a bit incredulous, to say the least. We will take one of Ehrman’s illustrations, and see if this is truly the case.

The textual problem of Mark 1:41 occur in the story of Jesus healing a man with a skin disease. The surviving manuscripts preserve verse 41 in two different forms; Misquoting Jesus (p. 133)

Mark 1:41 (TR[5] WH[6] NU KJV NKJV ASV RSV NRSV ESV NASB NIV NJB NAB NLT GCSB NET); (א A B C L W f1,13 33 565 700 syr cop Diatessaron)

41Moved with pity [splanchnon], he stretched out his hand and touched him and said to him, “I will; be clean.”

Mark 1:41 (TNIV NEB REB); (D a, d, ff2)

41Moved with anger [orgistheis], he stretched out his hand and touched him and said to him, “I will; be clean.”

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism by Don Wilkins and Edward D. Andrews

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The reason that this text is considered difficult is because of one having to go against the grain of textual principles: Which reading is it that the other reading(s) most likely came from? Well, it is certainly easy to see how “moved with anger” would have been changed to “move with pity.” In that case, the scribe would have been softening the reading. It is very difficult to see why a scribe would be tempted to go from “moved with pity” to “moved with anger.” On the other hand, the textual evidence for “moved with pity” is very weighty, while the textual evidence “moved with anger” has no real weight at all. However, the irony is that most persons who define textual criticism say, ‘it is an art and a science.’ What they mean is that it is a science in that there are rules and principles, like the one above, and it is an art, because one needs to be balanced in the application of those rules and principles. The irony comes in when we come to the actual act of being balanced, as this text is no real struggle. The textual rule above is not to be rigidly applied; there are times that it does not apply, this being one of them.

First, the Western text D, which gives us the reading of “moved with anger,” is notorious for making “significant” changes to the text. Comfort and Metzger, as well as others,  offer a very real reason as to why the scribe may have chosen to do so. “He may have decided to make Jesus angry with the leper for wanting a miracle–in keeping with the tone of voice Jesus used in 1:43 when he sternly warned the leper.” (P. W. Comfort 2008, 98) However, as Comfort goes on to point out, this would have been a misunderstanding on the part of the scribe, because Jesus was not warning him about seeking a miracle, it was rather “a warning about keeping the miracle a secret.” Another motive for the scribe to alter the text to the harder reading is because he felt the man was slow to believe that Jesus was serious about healing him (v. 40) In addition, why would the scribes soften the text here from “move with anger” to “moved with pity,” but not do the same at Mark 3:12 and 10:14?

Now, we are about to see Ehrman agree with the above textual information but go into his misleading the reader mode. He writes,

As we have already seen, we are never completely safe in saying that when the vast majority of manuscripts have one reading and only a couple have another, the majority are right. Sometimes a few manuscripts appear to be right even when all the others disagree. In part, this is because the vast majority of our manuscripts were produced hundreds and hundreds of years after the originals, and they themselves were copied not from the originals but from other, much later copies. Once a change made its way into the manuscript tradition, it could be perpetuated until it became more commonly transmitted than the original wording. In this case, both readings we are considering appear to be very ancient. Which one is original?  Misquoting Jesus (p. 134)

Ehrman has stated the textual principle correctly, well almost anyway. The principle is, ‘count evidence, not manuscripts.’ In other words, the majority of manuscripts mean nothing; it is the weight of the manuscript evidence that counts. What Ehrman is leaving out of his declaration is why that rule is a valuable principle to the textual scholar. The corrupt Byzantine text became the standard text from the sixth century forward, and is the largest cache of manuscripts that we have, numbering in the thousands. The Alexandrian text is few in number but is “considered to be the best text and the most faithful in preserving the original.”[7] You see 2-3 of the right Alexandrian texts (say P75, B and א) could be the weightier evidence against hundreds of Byzantine texts. The minute textual evidence for “moved by anger” comes from the Western text, which is known for its “fondness for paraphrase.” As “words, clauses, and even whole sentences are freely changed, omitted, or inserted.”[8]

Misrepresenting Jesus ad_

Thus, he is choosing a principle that is generally used in reference to the Alexandrian text [“moved with pity”] (which is few in number but rated best), over against the Western [“moved with anger”] and Byzantine texts (which are far more numerous and corrupt). The rule of ‘count the manuscript evidence, not the number of manuscripts’ is used, because the manuscripts that are few are more weightier than the many, and are more trustworthy. Well, that just is not the case here as Ehrman is using the textual principle; the Western manuscripts are far less trustworthy than the Alexandrian manuscripts. Therefore, he is invoking a rule in a misleading way. If it were the case that these few Western texts that support “moved with anger” were rated as the best text and the most faithful in preserving the original, and the more numerous Alexandrian that supports “moved with pity” were rated untrustworthy; then, he would have a point. However, it is just the opposite. (Wegner, A Student’s Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History Methods & Results 2006, 240-1)

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism? by F. David Farnell and Edward D. Andrews

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Another Argument that is no Real Argument at All

There is even better evidence than this speculative question of which reading the scribes were more likely to invent. As it turns out, we don’t have any Greek manuscripts of Mark that contain this passage until the end of the fourth century, nearly three hundred years after the book was produced. But we do have two authors who copied this story within twenty years of its first production. Misquoting Jesus (p. 135)

We have asked this question already, but I am certain that Ehrman cannot read any other classical literature that is based on one or a handful of manuscripts at best, which are upwards of a thousand years removed from the time of writing. Anyway, we do have a manuscript, P75 (dating to 175 C.E.), that is, in essence, the same as the Vaticanus 1209 codex of 350 C.E., the latter here containing the Gospel of Mark. We have already discussed what it means that these two are virtually identical, but we will take a moment to touch on that once more. What this shows is the Vaticanus text is a text that existed in the second century C.E. While Vaticanus may have been copied in the middle of the fourth-century, it has a text from the second-century.

In fact, Hort’s view of Vaticanus is that it preserves a “very pure line of very ancient text” (Westcott and A., The New Testament in the Original Greek, Vol. 2: Introduction, Appendix 1882, 251), as well as the belief that Vaticanus, with the exception of a few minor points, is essentially the original text. How do other textual scholars feel about the Vaticanus 1209 Codex? Bruce M. Metzger “is one of the great scholars of modern times,” according to Ehrman, wrote the following about Vaticanus, “one of the most valuable of all manuscripts of the Greek Bible.” (B. M. Metzger 1964, 1968, 1992, 47) Kurt Aland, a scholar on the same par as Metzger, wrote, “is by far the most significant of the uncials.”[9] (K. a. Aland 1987, 109),  Harold Greenlee, another scholar on par with Metzger, has written this about Vaticanus, “it is probably the best single MS of the NT.” (Greenlee, Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism 1995, 30)

Now, when Ehrman gives you, the reader, the dreadful news that “we don’t have any Greek manuscripts of Mark that contain this passage until the end of the fourth century, nearly three hundred years after the book was produced.” What sense is he trying to instill in you? How do you feel when he does not inform you that, one of those manuscripts that he refers to as ‘not being until the late fourth century’ is actually containing a second-century text, and is rated the best manuscript out of the 5,750 we have? Is it not just as deceptive to withhold pertinent information that you need to make a balanced judgment?

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics by Edward D. Andrews, F. David Farnell, Thomas Howe, Thomas Marshall, Dianna Newman

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Mark was the First Gospel?

Scholars have long recognized that Mark was the first Gospel to be written, and that both Matthew and Luke used Mark’s account as a source for their own stories about Jesus. It is possible, then, to examine Matthew and Luke to see how they changed Mark, wherever they tell the same story but in a (more or less) different way. When we do this, we find that Matthew and Luke have both taken over this story from Mark, their common source. It is striking that Matthew and Luke are almost word for word the same as Mark in the leper’s request and in Jesus’s response in verses 40–41. Which word, then, do they use to describe Jesus’s reaction? Does he become compassionate or angry? Oddly enough, Matthew and Luke both omit the word altogether. Misquoting Jesus (p. 135)

This is just not the case. His whole argument is based on more higher criticism, liberal scholarship, and historical criticism. Dr. F. David Farnell has penned an in-depth article on this important subject. (The Synoptic Gospels in the Ancient Church: The Testimony to the Priority of the Gospel of Matthew) Thus, if you have not read this, please go and do so. It takes a whole book, like the one by Eta Linnemann or at least a lengthy article like Farnells to deal with the subject matter of what is known as the Synoptic Problem. However, while I have merely introduced you to the subject below, I have also offered you the best book that deals with that subject matter and an extensive article by Farnell.

Literary Dependency Revisited

It is striking that Matthew and Luke are almost word for word the same as Mark in the leper’s request and in Jesus’s response in verses 40–41. Which word, then, do they use to describe Jesus’s reaction? Does he become compassionate or angry? Oddly enough, Matthew and Luke both omit the word altogether.

If the text of Mark available to Matthew and Luke had described Jesus as feeling compassion, why would each of them have omitted the word? Both Matthew and Luke describe Jesus as compassionate elsewhere, and whenever Mark has a story in which Jesus’s compassion is explicitly mentioned, one or the other of them retains this description in his own account.

What about the other option? What if both Matthew and Luke read in Mark’s Gospel that Jesus became angry? Would they have been inclined to eliminate that emotion? There are, in fact, other occasions on which Jesus becomes angry in Mark. In each instance, Matthew and Luke have modified the accounts. In Mark 3:5 Jesus looks around “with anger” at those in the synagogue who are watching to see if he will heal the man with the withered hand. Luke has the verse almost the same as Mark, but he removes the reference to Jesus’s anger. Matthew completely rewrites this section of the story and says nothing of Jesus’s wrath. Similarly, in Mark 10:14 Jesus is aggravated at his disciples (a different Greek word is used) for not allowing people to bring their children to be blessed. Both Matthew and Luke have the story, often verbally the same, but both delete the reference to Jesus’s anger (Matt. 19:14; Luke 18:16). Ehrman, Bart D. (2009-01-23). Misquoting Jesus (pp. 135-136). Harper Collins, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

Again, going back to the evidence of the Church Fathers, we find none of them addressed literary dependence, even when the opportunity to do so was before them. The in-depth answer is found in a publication by Eta Linnemann, Is There a Synoptic Problem? In short, she found absolutely no evidence whatsoever that either “Matthew or Luke were literary dependent on Mark.” At the end of this investigation, there is nothing found that can negate the fact that they were composed independently of one another.  She is joined by many prominent scholars, who have viewed the evidence, and find independence to be the preferred option: Louis Berkhof, Henry C. Thiessen, Robert G. Gromacki, Merrill C. Tenney, Jacob Von Bruggen, John M. Rist, John Wenham, and Bo Reicke. While listing the world-renowned scholars do not in and of itself prove anything, it does lend some credence to the Independent View. Moreover, the evidence that Matthew was penned first, followed by Luke, and then Mark is almost certain. Therefore, it is almost certain that Matthew and Luke did not have Mark to “copy” from. In addition, the evidence does not demonstrate literary dependence regardless. Even still, let us concede that Mark was available at the time Matthew and Luke penned their gospels.

REASONABLE FAITH: Saving Those Who Doubt by Edward D. Andrews

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In the English New Testament, the Greek word orge is generally translated “wrath,” while thymos is usually rendered “anger.” Anger may be justified or unjustified. Jesus divine anger does not come from a quick impulse, to be later regretted. He sees all the issues involved in a matter and has complete, entire knowledge of a situation. He reads the inner person; he notes the amount of ignorance, negligence, or willfulness; and he acts with impartiality. Anger for Jesus is righteous indignation, displeasure with someone or something.

Luke 5:12-16 (ESV) Mark 1:40-45 (ESV) Matt 8:2-4 (ESV)
12 While he was in one of the cities, there came a man full of leprosy. And when he saw Jesus, he fell on his face and begged him, “Lord, if you will, you can make me clean.” 13 And Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, saying, “I will; be clean.” And immediately the leprosy left him. 14 And he charged him to tell no one, but “go and show yourself to the priest, and make an offering for your cleansing, as Moses commanded, for a proof to them.” 15 But now even more the report about him went abroad, and great crowds gathered to hear him and to be healed of their infirmities. 16 But he would withdraw to desolate places and pray.

 

 

 

40 And a leper came to him, imploring him, and kneeling said to him, “If you will, you can make me clean.” 41 Moved with pity, he stretched out his hand and touched him and said to him, “I will; be clean.”42 And immediately the leprosy left him, and he was made clean. 43 And Jesus sternly charged him and sent him away at once, 44 and said to him, “See that you say nothing to anyone, but go, show yourself to the priest and offer for your cleansing what Moses commanded, for a proof to them.” 45 But he went out and began to talk freely about it, and to spread the news, so that Jesus could no longer openly enter a town, but was out in desolate places, and people were coming to him from every quarter.

 

 

2 And behold, a leper came to him and knelt before him, saying, “Lord, if you will, you can make me clean.” 3 And Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, saying, “I will; be clean.” And immediately his leprosy was cleansed. 4 And Jesus said to him, “See that you say nothing to anyone, but go, show yourself to the priest and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a proof to them.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Is there really literary dependence in the above texts about the account of Jesus healing a leper. (Luke 5:12-16; Mark 1:40-45; Matthew 8:2-4) No, there is no literary dependence. Luke used 98 Greek words to inform his readers of the account, while, Mark used 99 words, with Matthew using only 52 words. Here we might lean toward the close amount of words between Luke and Mark, but as we move on, we will see that this is where the similarity ends. Therefore, we will focus our initial interest in Luke and Mark. However, first, of all the accounts of Jesus’ life, Mark’s is the most graphic, the most vivid, fast-moving as well as the richest in interesting details.

For example, in telling about Jesus’ curing the man with the withered hand, Mark records not only that Jesus looked around at the Pharisees watching what Jesus would do, but that he did so “with anger, grieved at their hardness of heart.” (Mark 3:5, ESV) And in reporting Jesus’ cleansing of the literal temple in Jerusalem, Mark alone informs us that Jesus “would not allow anyone to carry anything through the temple.” (Mark 11:16, ESV) When the people began bringing him young children for him to touch these, the disciples were holding the children back from getting to Jesus; Mark alone writes, “Jesus saw it; he was indignant.” What Ehrman is discounting is the style of the writer. Mark’s own style is also obvious in a stronger wording of the rebukes Jesus directed to his own disciples. Compare Matthew 8:26 and 16:8 with Mark 4:40 and 8:17.

Luke starts the account with: “While he was in one of the cities, there came a man full of leprosy. And when he saw Jesus, he fell on his face and begged him, ‘Lord, if you will, you can make me clean.’”

Mark begins the account with: “And a leper came to him, imploring him, and kneeling said to him, “If you will, you can make me clean.”

[Luke 5:12; Mark 1:40] Notice that (1) Luke mentions being in one of the cities, while Mark does not. (2) Notice that Luke, a physician says a man came to Jesus, who was “full of leprosy.” Luke felt the need to inform his readers that the man’s disease was in an advanced stage. For Mark, it was enough to mention leprosy. (3) In the Greek, Luke says the man “fell on his face,” while Mark uses a different Greek expression, informing us the man was “falling on his knees.” (4) Luke in the Greek says the man “begged,” while Mark uses a differed Greek word, saying the man “entreated” him. In just the first verse, we find points of difference in content and style.

[Luke 5:13; Mark 1:41-42] (5) Notice that Mark says that Jesus was “moved with pity,” while Luke did not. (6) Notice too that Mark reiterates the cleanness with the parting comment, “he was made clean,” while Like does not. In the first part of the account, we kept noticing differences where Luke stood out as different from Mark, and here we see Mark is different from Luke. In essence, they are really just different from one another, because it is two people retelling what they saw and heard, so personality and style will creep into each person’s account.

[Luke 5:14; Mark 1:43-44] (7) Notice that Mark informs his readers that “Jesus” addressed the man, but Luke uses a pronoun. (8) Notice too that Mark says that Jesus “sternly” charged the man to tell no one, but look does not comment on Jesus’ demeanor. (9) In addition, note that Mark informs the reader of the added detail that Jesus “sent him away at once,” which Luke did not include this observation.

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” {Third Edition] by Edward D. Andrews

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[Luke 5:15-16; Mark 1:45] (10) Notice that Luke says the “report about him went abroad;” not mentioning how this came about, but Mark says “he went out and began to talk freely about it, and to spread the news.” (11) Not too that Mark informs his readers of the result of the leper’s actions, “so that Jesus could no longer openly enter a town,” but Luke address a different aspect of the result, “and great crowds gathered to hear him and to be healed of their infirmities.” Both Mark and Luke would inform their readers that Jesus had to withdraw to a desolate place, (12) but Luke adds to pray. (13) Mark goes on to conclude with “and people were coming to him from every quarter.”

We can see that there is no literary dependency between Mark and Luke at all. There are thirteen major differences in just a five verse account of Jesus healing of a leper. What we have here are two different observations of the same account. The differences come by way of the author’s different styles, as well as what they wished to convey to their prospective audiences. Like any eyewitness testimony, there will be differences, but the gist of the story will be the same. Some differences arise when we have two or more accounts of the same incident.

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The world that you live in today has many real reasons to be fearful. Many are addicted to drugs, alcohol, bringing violence into even the safest communities. Terrorism has plagued the world for more than a decade now. Bullying in schools has caused many teen suicides. The divorce rate …

JOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the WorldJOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the World

John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has also been called the “Gospel in a nutshell,” because it is considered a summary of the central theme of traditional Christianity. Martin Luther called John 3:16 “The heart of the Bible, the Gospel in …

THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …

THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love VanishTHIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING: When Hope and Love Vanish

Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …

THE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer LifeTHE POWERFUL WEAPON OF PRAYER: A Healthy Prayer Life

DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …

Christian Apologetics

DEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and TrueDEFENDING OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORSHIP: The Word of God Is Authentic and True

How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

UNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of ViewUNDERSTANDING ISLAM AND TERRORISM: A Biblical Point of View

Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the BasicsBIBLICAL CRITICISM: Beyond the Basics

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] Only a few are listed, this is not to suggest that these five texts are the only significant variants.

[2] It will be noted that this system is similar in principle but different in application from that followed by Johann Albrecht Bengel in his edition of the Greek New Testament (Tübingen, 1734).

[3] Bruce Manning Metzger and United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), xxviii.

[4] There are actually four endings of the Gospel according to Mark, which are current in the manuscripts. The above verses 9-20 are the traditional ending.

[5] TR stands for the Textus Receptus (“received text”). This is the name given to the succession of printed Greek texts of the New Testament, which was the foundation for all English translations up until the 19th century.

[6] WH stands for the Westcott and Hort text of the New Testament published in 1881.

[7] Bruce Manning Metzger and United Bible Societies, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.) (London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), xix.

[8] IBID., xx.

[9] An uncial is a letter of the kind used in Greek manuscripts written between the 2nd and 11th centuries that resembles a modern capital letter but is more rounded, numbering at 274.

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