Insight Into the Electoral College
The Electoral College is a process, not a place. The founding fathers established it in the Constitution as a compromise between election of the President by a vote in Congress and election of the President by a popular vote of qualified citizens.
The Electoral College consists of 538 electors. A majority of 270 electoral votes is required to elect the President. Your state’s entitled allotment of electors equals the number of members in its Congressional delegation: one for each member in the House of Representatives plus two for your Senators.
What happens if no presidential candidate gets 270 Electoral votes? If no candidate receives a majority of Electoral votes, the House of Representatives elects the President from the 3 Presidential candidates who received the most Electoral votes. Each state delegation has one vote.
The Electoral College was established in 1787. The men who drafted the Constitution debated several formats for electing the president and vice president — having Congress vote, having the state legislatures choose, using a direct popular vote — before deciding on the Electoral College format.
Generally, the political parties nominate Electors at their State party conventions or by a vote of the party’s central committee in each State. Each candidate will have their own unique slate of potential Electors as a result of this part of the selection process.
Electors Being Pressured to Switch their Vote
There has been great pressure put on the electors, even death threats, to switch their vote on Monday, December 19, 2016, which would deny Trump the presidency if at 37 did so. Commentator Mercedes Schlapp says that she highly doubts that this would happen because of the great pressure, which will likely have the opposite effect on anyone who might even consider doing so. She is correct. The electors can see that the Democratic party is seeking to alter the way that the electoral college works. The Democrats are in a win-at-all-costs mode, with their lawsuits, recounts, threats (phone calls, emails, death threats), so the electors can clearly see their motivation is not genuine. Schlapp was right also when she stated that the transition from Bush to Obama was nothing like this, it was peaceful, not this rioting in the streets. While conservatives were truly depressed over the idea of an Obama administration, they certainly handled it better. We likely recall that Hillary Clinton was the one accusing Trump of failing to accept the process. She basically said he was being treasonous for not doing so.
The commentator Byron York helps us to appreciate that such a thing has never happened. In fact, the closest case of such a thing, where there were six electors, goes clear back to 1808. He also rightly pointed out that 29 states have laws that bind an elector to vote the way the state voted, so these are exempt from the discussion. As Tucker points out, we do not have a perfect political system, but when one tries to undermine it after an election, this creates nothing but chaos. If they do not like how it takes places, go about changing it beforehand.
Mercedes Schlapp males an important point that this is not based on anything but a “moral decision.” This author would say that the liberal progressive worldview has been taking root more and more over the last 70 years, and especially the last 20 years. We cannot have picked a better time to acquire the conservative worldview in the presidency, the Congress, the Senate, and the governorship. The conservative movement has a chance to right the ship that has been sailing the way of liberal progressivism, running in the footsteps of Europe. Sadly, the likelihood that all of these hundreds of conservatives will act in the best interests of humanity is very slim indeed. Let us say that Christians have to deal with more of the same and the United States simply continues in the way of socialism, what should he or she do?
You Must Be Steadfast and Persevere
Mark 13:13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
13 You will be hated by all because of my name, but the one who endures to the end, he will be saved.
The last safe place for Christians was the United States of America with its conservative principles and values and a constitution grounded in Scripture. While the United States is not the Kingdom of God by any means, it has served Christians the world over well and will likely do so right up into the Great Tribulation and Armageddon. However, this is proving to be even less the case, as more and more Christians are coming under fire, taken to court, threatened by a system that has begun to grown more and more liberal by the day. This is because those who are truly Christian give their lives to God’s kingdom and will not stand for liberal-progressive morals and values, e.g., same sex marriage, abortion, the legalization of drugs, weakness on crime, and many other social agendas of the liberalism.
In the above text, Jesus said, “the one who endures to the end, he will be saved.” What did he mean by endure? The Greek verb behind our English “endure” (hypomeno) literally means “to stay under.” According to lexicographers is means “to maintain a belief or course of action in the face of opposition, stand one’s ground, hold out, endure. On this Greek verb, William Barclay writes, “It is the spirit which can bear things, not simply with resignation, but with blazing hope . . . It is the quality which keeps a man on his feet with his face to the wind. It is the virtue which can transmute the hardest trial into glory because beyond the pain it sees the goal.” Thus, endurance empowers us to stand steadfast and persevere and not lose hope in the face difficulties or hardships. (Rom. 5:3-5) When one is in the midst of pain and suffering, he is able to look beyond to the prize that awaits him. THE BOOK OF JAMES CPH CHRISTIAN LIVING COMMENTARY offers the following on James 1:12a,
Blessed is the man who endures under trial; (1:12a)
James here continues with his progression of the person who is undergoing the difficult trials in stating blessed is the man who endures under trial. James calls the believers that endure the trial blessed. The word for blessed is not some joy that the world could offer to man, but rather it was a joy that only God could give to man. It is the highest good possible that only God is able to give man by his own spirit. It is an inward peace and comfort of the soul that is not determined by outward circumstances but is a continuous inner joy through all situations of life. This is the same word that Jesus used to describe the beatitudes in (Matthew 5:3-12).The word for endures is hupomone that means to “remain under.” (Vine, 1996, pg. 200) The blessedness that James talks about only comes to the one who remains firm in his faith in the midst of the trial. (Calloway 2015, p. 22)
Hebrews 12:1 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
1 Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also lay aside every weight and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance (hypomones) the race that is set before us,
One would not argue that the times we now live in are truly difficult, as they are violent in the extreme, designed to cater to our fleshly side, and both parents must work just to get by. All of this is by design, to cause Christians to take their eye off the one assignment that Jesus gave us. (Matt 24:14; 28:19-20; Ac 1:8) The words of the apostle Paul in the book of Hebrews is ever applicable to us as well, as we too need to lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, run with endurance the race that is set before us.
“Lay aside every weight” is a reference to the Greek and Roman athletic games. “In the context of running, it could refer to burdensome clothing or excess bodily weight. Therefore, believers are to run the Christian race with endurance, laying aside those things that bind or weigh us down.” What type of weight could hinder us in the race that is set before us? We would want to set aside any constant thinking about a particular matter or persistent interest, such as fame or making as a reputation for ourselves, love of money, sexual immorality or violent entertainment, excessive travel for pleasure, and other material pursuits that can affect our thinking. – 1 John 2:15-17.
Constant thinking about or persistent interest, however, can wear us out emotionally, physically, and spiritually, affecting our trust in God. Paul talks about how a lack of faith is “sin which clings so closely.” Imperfect humans, even Christians with the new personality and mind of Christ, have a propensity at finding themselves in periods of temporary weakness of faith. In these moments, they tend to act contrary to the Spirit’s lead, through deception, human weaknesses, setting their hearts on other things, which in turn grieves the Holy Spirit, ending with their stumbling spiritually. Endurance empowers one to be steadfast if the face of hurdles and adversities all the while maintaining hope.
Hebrews 2:1 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
2 For this reason we must pay much closer attention to the things that have been heard, so that we do not drift away from it.
What and where was the very first Christian congregation? It was the Jerusalem Christian congregation, founded right after Pentecost of 33 C.E. It was made up of the 12 apostles, Jesus brothers James and Jude, Mark who wrote the Gospel that bears his name, and hundreds of other Jews that personally knew Jesus, many traveling with him. We can only imagine how spiritually strong that congregation must have been. (Acts 2:44-47; 4:32-34; 5:41; 6:7) However, some 31 years later in 61-64 C.E., the congregation had grown tired and apathetic. Some were drifting away (2:1), others were falling away (6:6) or willfully begging off or turning away (12:25), while other had become sluggish (6:12) and some were shrinking back (10:39) from the truth that they had known from the beginning. How could this have happened? One resource writes,
The persons addressed were in the mental and spiritual condition common in every age of the Christian church, a condition of languor [laziness] and weariness, of disappointed expectations, deferred hopes, conscious failure and practical unbelief. They were Christians but had slender appreciation of the glory of their calling, misconstrued their experience, and had allowed themselves to drift away from boldness and hope and intensity of faith.
The comment from above, “the mental and spiritual condition common in every age of the Christian church,” is the reason, we are going to review what the author of Hebrews wrote, to pull that first Christian congregation out of their spiritual stupor. The first seven years of Christianity, from 29 C.E., when the founder Jesus Christ was baptized, to 36 C.E., when the first Gentile was baptized, the Christian congregation was made up of Jews only. Some of these ones were very slow in getting over that there was a new way to God, through Jesus Christ. It was deeply embedded in their mind and heart that the only way to God for 1,500 years was through the Israelite nation, and the Mosaic Law. The system of worship that they had known throughout their entire life was now replaced with a new one. They had, under the old Jewish system, an extraordinary system of worship, priesthood, regular sacrifices, and a temple in Jerusalem that could be viewed as the ninth wonder of the world. Many Jewish Christians were unable to make the transition, as they walked aimlessly because of an inability to see how the Christian system was better than the Jewish system of the past, failing to getting in the race for life.
Romans 10:4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.
On Romans 10:4, Kenneth Boa and William Kruidenier, write, “As the end of the law. Christ made it possible for everyone who believes to attain a righteous standing before God. As the end (telos) of the law. Christ was its fulfillment (Matt. 5:17; Rom. 10:4), not its chronological termination (Rom. 6:15). However, it was his fulfillment of the law’s requirements, and his resulting confirmation in righteousness, that cast the law aside as a tormentor of all who bore the guilt of not keeping it.”
What about today, with Christians coming out of the world into the Christian congregation, is it not similar? The world is full of wonderment, powerful leaders, exciting innovations, scientific advancements, stimulating opportunities, and it is specifically designed to lure the unsuspecting one into its ways of thinking, and to retain them once they have them, as well as pull them back in if they ever choose to leave. It has generated a generation of selfish, me-first people that set aside God’s Word, because they develop a wall of disbelief, setting impossible standards for the Bible, while lowering the standards of secularism, which enables them to feel good about being in the world, or returning to the world. Then, there are the Christians who are halfhearted, having little enthusiasm, interest, support, or conviction in their worship of God. – Psalm 119:113; Revelation 3:16.
Finally, there are those, who possess “a double heart” (Literally “a heart and a heart”). (Ps 12:2) In other words, these ones, go to every congregation meeting, are very active in their congregation, and at the same time, they are living a very worldly life outside of the congregation. It might be that they are materialistic, or they are morally unclean (1 Pet 2:12; He 4:13; 1 Cor. 6:9-11), mentally unclean (Phil 4:8; Matt 15:18-20), unclean in speech (Eph. 4:25, 29, 31; 5:3; Rev 21:8), and so on. They may lie, gamble, or steal by cheating on their taxes, or dishonest business practices. (Pro 6:16-19; Cols 3:9, 10) They may have fits of anger, and are abusive to their wife, or children. (Ps 11:5; Proverbs 22:24, 25) They may be heavy drinkers and drunkards, which leads to their household problems. (1 Cor. 5:11-13; 1 Tim. 3:8) These ones are those who are deceptively presenting themselves as one thing to the Christian congregation, while living an entirely different life outside of the congregation. – Matthew 15:7-8.
So again, we revisit Paul’s words to this Jewish congregation, “Therefore, we must pay much closer attention to what we have heard, lest we drift away from it.” (Heb. 2:1)
Therefore is an adverb that introduces a statement that is a consequence of the previous statement. Chapter 1 of Hebrews was/is about the supremacy of God’s Son. Chapter 3 is similarly about Jesus being greater than Moses is while chapter 4 demonstrates that Jesus is a superior high priest than in the Aaronic priesthood, and chapters 5 through 7 cover the superiority of Jesus to Melchizedek. Thus, the “therefore,” that begins chapter 2 is expressing that there is a serious need to consider the greatness of Christ, and to learn more about Jesus. However, they needed to pay much closer attention to what we have heard, better appreciating the superiority of Jesus, and to negate the impressive Jewish system that had been their way for so long.
The idea of drifting away was a reference to ship sailing, which was a common mode of transportation in the first-century C.E. Roman Empire. If the captain of a ship does not keep his mind on the wind and current, he will risk running his ship past a safe harbor and onto rocky seashore. These Jewish Christians needed to pull themselves out of their apathetic stupor. In the same way, if we are not heeding the Word of God, by way of a regular, deep personal Bible study, preparing for our Christians meetings, so as to participate, sharing our faith with others, we too will drift ashore, experiencing spiritual shipwreck. Sadly, some shipwrecks are beyond recovery, and some crashes of one’s faith places them beyond repentance. In other words, nothing will ever move them to repent. Just like a captain, who is not paying attention, we may not wake up until it is too late. Thus, let us catch any spiritual stupor before it becomes serious.
Hebrews 3:12-13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
12 Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, heart of unbelief, leading you to fall away from the living God. 13 But exhort one another every day, as long as it is called “today,” that none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.
We cannot remain “pure in heart” (Matt 5:8), if we develop an evil heart of unbelief. An evil heart of unbelief (kardia ponera apistias) is “a remarkable combination. Heart ([kardia]) is common in the LXX (about 1,000 times), but “evil heart” only twice in the O.T. (Jer. 16:12; 18:12). “[Apistias] is more than mere unbelief, here rather disbelief, refusal to believe, genitive case describing the evil heart marked by disbelief which is no mark of intelligence then or now.”
What beliefs have the world of mankind spread that would undermine one’s faith in God to such an extent? (1) Evolution is the theoretical process by which all species develop from earlier forms of life. (2) Relativism is the belief that concepts such as right and wrong, goodness and badness, or truth and falsehood are not absolute but change from culture to culture and situation to situation. (3) Limited inerrancy as oppose to full inerrancy has caused many to lose their faith. Full inerrancy affirms that the original Scriptures contained no errors at all. Limited inerrancy, on the other hand, affirms that Scripture is without error in matters of salvation doctrine, but not history, science, or geography. (4) Secularism is the rejection of religion or its exclusion from a philosophical or moral system. (5) Atheism is disbelief in the existence of God or deities. (6) Biblical criticism is known as the historical-critical method of Bible study, such as the study of historical criticism, literary criticism, form criticism, tradition criticism, redaction criticism, structuralist criticism, among others. This is known as the new way of biblical interpretation, and it undermines the trustworthiness of Scripture, a pseudo-scholarship. (7) Empiricism is the philosophical belief that all knowledge is derived from the experience of the senses, to the exclusion of revelatory knowledge, such as the Word of God. (8) Existentialism is a philosophical movement begun in the 19th century that denies that the universe has any intrinsic meaning or purpose. It requires people to take responsibility for their own actions and shape their own destinies. (9) Pragmatism is the position that “those beliefs are true which it is expedient for us to act upon and believe.” (10) Religious Liberalism is a movement in Protestantism stressing intellectual freedom and the moral content of Christianity over the doctrines of traditional theology. The abandonment of “the traditional view of authority and truth in order to substitute a newer source of authority, typically based on experience or intellectual conclusions.” This list could go on for some time, but I believe you have gotten the point. The Word of God, true Christianity, and truth has been under an ever-greater attack throughout the 20th and into the 21st century, the pinnacle of the enlightenment age that got its start in the late 17th century with René Descartes. We must not let ourselves be caught off guard by such death-dealing beliefs.
What is the result of an unbelieving heart that has been infected with the thinking of man? It leads one to fall away (Gr., apostenai, “to stand off”) from the living God. Just how serious is this? You will notice that earlier, Paul spoke of ‘drifting away’ because of not paying attention to one’s spiritual needs. (Heb. 2:1; Matt 5:3) However, the Greek term apostenai rendered “fall away,” which is more of a willful drawing away, means “to stand off” and is related to the word “apostasy.” This is standing off from the truth that was once accepted. It signifies a willful and purposeful resisting, withdrawing, and abandoning, with a measure of disdain added. One New Testament word study book offered,
The word “departing” deserves special attention. It is aphistemi which is made up of apo “off,” and histemi “to stand,” the compound word meaning “to stand off from.” This was exactly the position of these Hebrews. They were standing aloof from the living God. The idea is not that of departing, but of standing off from. Our word “apostasy” is derived from a form of this Greek word. Apostasy is defined as the act of someone who has previously subscribed to a certain belief, and who now renounces his former professed belief in favor of some other, which is diametrically opposed to what he believed before. In other words, his new belief is not merely a new system of faith, but one, which at every point negates his former belief.
As was stated, the drifting away of Hebrews 2:1 is the result of being inattentive to one’s spiritual needs, and bears repeating. In that circumstance, there is no real effort involved to end up spiritually shipwrecked. However, this falling away is the result of someone taking action. This one is willfully “falling away from the living God.” Why? Paul gives us the answer, an evil, heart of unbelief. This evil heart of unbelief is not the result of not being a student of the Bible, nor having sufficient knowledge of Scripture, or even an incorrect understanding of Scripture. Paul goes on to quote the occasion of the Israelites at Exodus 15, which is also referenced at Psalm 95:8, “do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion” at Meribah. The Israelites had enjoyed Jehovah’s God’s love, protection, and saw his “works for forty years” while in the wilderness. (Heb. 3:7-11) However, these very ones hardened their hearts against him.
In the same sense, Christians today, need to “consider how to stir up one another to love and good works, not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another” (Heb. 10:24-25), so that “none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.” What we have learned thus far? (1) We do not want to neglect personal Bible study. (2) We should be well prepared for congregation meetings (3) We should have mercy on those who have begun to doubt because they have fed their minds on literature from Bible critics; and we should have the ability to reason from the Scriptures, to help them overcome their doubts. (4) In addition, we stir up one another to love and good works, not neglecting to meet together. – Hebrews 10:24-25.
Am I suggesting that Christians should never read a book by a Bible critic? No. However, would you venture into any unsafe place in life without preparing for it first? Let me offer an illustration. A prosecuting attorney goes to the best law school in the US, studies under one of the greatest legal minds, and he may have 30-years of experience. He puts on the state’s case, we are mesmerized by his knowledge of the law, the skill with which he presents it, and we find the defendant guilty as we sit in the jury box. However, one thing is missing. What? We have yet to hear the defense attorney. Do we now have blinders to the point that it does not matter? The irony is, once the defense attorney gets up and presents his case, we are so stunned by the evidence that he presents, that we have now completely changed our position.
This is what would happen if we read the Bible critics book first. We would feel that it really cast doubts about the existence of a personal God, who created everything, and that such a being inspires the Bible is no longer true. Then, we read an apologetic Bible scholar’s book that deals with the same issues, say that of Dr. William Lane Craig, concluding we did not have all the facts, and now feel saddened because we doubted in the first place. What I recommend is that we read the apologetic Bible scholar’s book first, like putting in a bullet proof vest, and then read the Bible critic’s book if we so desire.
Hebrews 10:39 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
39 But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction, but of those who have faith to the preserving of the soul.
Paul closes this section with serious confidence that they “are not of those who shrink back and are destroyed.” Today, true Christians live in a time like no other, and are under a constant bombardment from the world that surrounds us. Like Paul and the Jewish Christians, who heeded his counsel, we too do not want to shrink back to destruction. This does not mean that we will never have a moment of fear, as we are susceptible to being afraid like any other imperfect human. The Greek hupostello, means “‘to draw back, withdraw,’ perhaps a metaphor from lowering a sail and so slackening the course, and hence of being remiss in holding the truth.” A Christian with faith, will not ‘draw back or withdraw’ from their commitment to God’s will and purposes, ‘slacking off in their course.’ Regardless of what this wicked world, alienated from God throws at them, such as persecution, difficulties, health issues, or any other tribulation. They will face these head on, like the apostle Paul, who said, “For the sake of Christ, then, I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities. For when I am weak, then I am strong.” (2 Cor. 12:10) Yes, we must be steadfast in our service to God, as he is well aware of our limitations, and he makes allowances for these, “he remembers that we are dust.”―Psalm 55:22; 103:14.
Hebrews 12:3 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
3 For consider the one who endured such hostility by sinners against himself, so that you will not grow weary in your souls and give up.
What is it that we are not to grow weary or fainthearted from? What is it Satan would love us to get too tired to carry out? The answer is found in verses 1-2.
Hebrews 12:1-2 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
1 Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also lay aside every weight and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, 2 fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
Have you bought out the time to know why Jesus ever came to earth as a man in the first place? First, we can say that the Gospels are of his life and ministry. From this you can see that his focus was on his ministry. Jesus came to earth as a man for three reasons. (1) Jesus said, “For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world—to bear witness to the truth.” (John 18:37) (2) Peter said this to Christians, “For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps.” (1 Pet. 2:21) (3) Jesus tells us this, “even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” (Matt. 20:28) Jesus came to leave us an example, for us to follow in his steps, which example is his ministry that he carried out to the Jews of his day, and we are to carry out to all people. (Matt. 28:19-20) The sad irony, there are really no churches within the 39,000 denominations that I am aware of based on my personal statistical surveys, which have even begun to carry out a similar message to the nations, so there is no real reason to be tired out from this work. Oh yes, they send out missionaries here and there, but the truth is, all Christians are responsible for preaching, teaching and making disciples. With or without the church, we need to make progress toward maturity and improve our ministry (evangelistic) skills, so as to carry out the Great Commission we were given.
 U. S. Electoral College, Official – What is the Electoral .., https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/about.html (accessed December 17, 2016).
 IBID, (accessed December 17, 2016).
 IBID, (accessed December 17, 2016).
 CNN.com Specials, http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2004/special/president/electoral.college/more.html (accessed December 17, 2016).
 CNC1 – Chapter 12 Flashcards | Quizlet, https://quizlet.com/26668595/cnc1-chapter-12-flash-cards/ (accessed December 17, 2016).
 William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 1039.
 William Barclay, New Testament Words. 144-5 (Louisville, Westminster Press, 1974)
 Clinton E. Arnold, Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary Volume 4: Hebrews to Revelation., 75 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002).
 There is nothing wrong with traveling more when you are retired, or even taking a vacation once or twice a year with your family up unto the time of retirement. However, the key word is “excessive.” If John Smith truly believed that he was going to receive everlasting life; then, this life should be used to almost entirely to carry out the work Christians were given (Matt 28:19-20). Let us play with the belief and reality of everlasting life. The 70-80 years that we now live is what, when we think of say several hundred billion trillion years that lies ahead in our everlasting life. If a true believer saw it that way, this Great Commission of preaching, teaching, and making disciples would be taken more seriously. Here is how we should view pleasure and entertainment, as a means to recuperate, before getting back to our Great Commission. The commission is called great for a reason, and the analogy I gave for John smith, is like one piece of sand, in comparison to all of the sand on all of the planets in the 125 billion universes. That piece of sand, our 70-80 years of life now is not even on the scale of significance. My comment was for the wealthy Christian family, who travels for pleasure, excessively.
 W. Robertson Nicoll, The Expositor’s Greek New Testament, Volume Four, 236 (Peabody: Hendrickson, 2002).
 Kenneth Boa and William Kruidenier, Romans, vol. 6, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 309.
 Secularism is the rejection of religion or its exclusion from a philosophical or moral system.
 Footnote, Lexham English Bible
 A priest and king of Salem who blessed Abraham, and in essence, blessed the Aaronic priesthood that was in his loins.
 LXX is the Greek Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible made between 280 to 150 B.C.E. to meet the needs of Greek-speaking Jews outside Palestine.
 A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, Heb 3:12 (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1933).
 Hindson, Ed (2008-05-01). The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics (Kindle Locations 11777-11778). Harvest House Publishers. Kindle Edition.
 Kenneth S. Wuest, Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: For the English Reader, Heb 3:12 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997).
 W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger and William White, Jr., vol. 2, Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, 180 (Nashville, TN: T. Nelson, 1996).