John 18:38 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
38 Pilate said to him, “What is truth?”
In the United States, there are 350,000 churches, making up hundreds of denominations. Eighty percent of these are stagnant, with nineteen percent growing only through childbirth, and less than one percent being by conversion. Moreover, there is a great divide among those Christians, who make up these churches. How can we as Christians turn this around, and find unity amongst ourselves? Each Christian, regardless of background, needs to come to a full and complete knowledge of the only true God; moving to bring their lives in harmony with his Word, the Bible.
Pontius Pilate (d. 36 C.E.) was the Roman governor of Judea who would order that Jesus be crucified. This was the man that asked the famous question above, “What is truth?” The two men facing each other could hardly have been more different. Pilate was a politician who was skeptical sarcastic, distrustful, ambitious, wealthy, seeking to do anything to advance his own career. Jesus was a humble teacher who rejected wealth and status and was ready to sacrifice his life so that he might save the lives of others. Clearly, then, these two men would not be in agreement, especially as to the matter of truth.
The statement that prompted Pilate to ask the question is worth considering. “Pilate said to him, ‘So you are a king?’ Jesus answered, ‘You say that I am a king. For this purpose, I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice.’” (John 8:37) Truth to Jesus was not relative, elusive, incomprehensible notion. Just a year earlier, teaching after the Festival of Booths, “Jesus said to the Jews who had believed him, ‘If you remain in my word, you are truly my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.’” (John 8:31-23) Where can such truth be found? On Thursday afternoon, Nisan 14th, just after the Passover feast, Jesus said in prayer to the Father, “Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.” The Bible of sixty-six books is the inspired, fully inerrant Word of God, which reveals the truth, and is “profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17 so that the man of God may be fully competent, equipped for every good work.” (2 Tim. 3:16-17) Pilate uninterestedly rejected the opportunity to learn such truth.
Here Jesus stood before the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, as a condemned criminal. Yes, Jesus was born, came into this world, for the purpose of testifying to the truth, “to give his soul as a ransom for many.” (Matt. 20:28) Pilate’s reply was a memorable question: “What is truth?” (John 18:38) “With this flippant remark, Pilate dismisses Jesus’ claim that he came to testify to the truth and that everyone on the side of truth listens to him.” Witherington (1995: 292) writes, “Apparently Pilate concludes that Jesus is a deluded quack whom he can banter with but not take seriously.” Carson (1991: 595) describes Pilate’s response as “curt and cynical” and thinks that his reply is terse “either because he is convinced there is no answer, or, more likely, because he does not want to hear it.” Ridderbos (1997: 596) sees Pilate “shrugging his shoulders, in effect.” Hendriksen and Kistemaker observe, “When Pilate hears this remark about the truth, he shrugs his shoulders. Skeptic that he is, this subject no longer holds any interest for him. R. C. H. Lenski writes, Pilate’s “tone is that of an indifferent worldling who by his question intends to say that anything in the nature of religious truth is a useless speculation.” (Lenski 1942, 2008, 1236)
Thus, the Roman governor likely asked the question with cynical disbelief, saying, in essence, “Truth? What is that? There is no such thing.” Many share this disdainful attitude toward truth today, including many Christian leaders sad to say, as well as secular educators, and politicians. Many today, view truth, especially moral and spiritual truth, as not absolute, but rather relative and constantly changing or developing. Of course, this takes us back to the prophetic words of Isaiah, “Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter! Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes, and shrewd in their own sight!” (Isa. 5:20-21) In other words, people today believe that each individual is capable of determining what is right and what is wrong for themselves. In conjunction with this, they absolutely reject the Word of God, viewing its values and moral standard as out-of-date.
Anyone who is in college today, or who follows politic and current affairs, will recognize that Pilate’s skeptical view of truth is quite common today. Many today believe that truth is relative. What does that mean? Matthew J. Slick writes, “Relativism is the philosophical position that all points of view are equally valid and that all truth is relative to the individual. This means that all moral positions, all religious systems, all art forms, all political movements, etc., are “truths” that are relative to the individual. Under the umbrella of relativism, whole groups of perspectives are categorized:
- Cognitive relativism: Cognitive relativism affirms that all truth is relative. This would mean that no system of truth is more valid than another one and that there is no objective standard of truth.
- Moral/ethical relativism: All morals are relative to the social group within which they are constructed.
- Situational relativism: Ethics (right and wrong) are dependent upon the situation.”
Slick goes on to write, “Unfortunately, the philosophy of relativism is pervasive in our culture today. With the rejection of God, and of Christianity in particular, absolute truth is being abandoned. Our pluralistic society wants to avoid the idea that there really is a right and wrong. This is evidenced in our deteriorating judicial system which has more and more trouble punishing criminals, in our entertainment media which continues to push the envelope of morality and decency, in our schools which teach evolution and ‘social tolerance,’ etc. In addition, the plague of moral relativism is encouraging everyone to accept homosexuality, pornography on TV, fornication, and a host of other ‘sins’ that were once considered wrong, but are now being accepted and even promoted in society. It is becoming so pervasive that if you speak out against moral relativism, and its ‘anything goes’ philosophy, you’re labeled as an intolerant bigot. Of course, this is incredibly hypocritical of those who profess that all points of view are true, yet reject those who hold the view that there are absolutes in morality. It seems that what is really meant by the moral relativists is that all points of view are true except for the views that teach moral absolutes, or an absolute God, or absolute right and wrong. Some typical expressions that reveal an underlying presupposition of relativism are comments such as ‘That is your truth, not mine,’ ‘It is true for you, but not for me,’ and ‘There are no absolute truths.’ Of course, these statements are illogical. Relativism is invading our society, our economy, our schools, and our homes. Society cannot flourish nor survive in an environment where everyone does what is right in his own eyes, where the situation determines actions and if the situation changes, lying or cheating is acceptable—as long as you’re not caught. Without a common foundation of truth and absolutes, our culture will become weak and fragmented.”
F this has been how you have viewed truth, it might very well be that you have unknowingly adopted it from school, college, social circles, movies, television, music, and the like. It is inundated the United States, the last bastion of absolute truth. Many are not aware how much this philosophical mindset affects their life.
This attack on absolute truth did not begin with Pontius Pilate. Some ancient Greek philosophers living centuries before Pilate made relativism their entire life’s work. Parmenides was a late sixth or early fifth century B.C.E.) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Parmenides believed that real knowledge was unattainable. Democritus (c. 460 – c. 370 B.C.E.) was an influential Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher, who said, “Truth is buried deep. . . . We know nothing for certain.” And even the most revered of them all, Socrates (470/469 – 399 BC), who was a classical Greek philosopher said that all that he really knew was that he knew nothing.”
Norman L. Geisler writes, “Most relativists really believe relativism is true for everybody, not just for them. But that is the one thing they cannot believe if they are truly relativists, for a relative truth is true for me but not necessarily for everyone. So if the relativist thinks relativism is true for everyone, then he really believes that it is an absolute truth. Of course, this being the case, he is no longer truly a relativist, since he believes in at least one absolute truth. Here is the dilemma: A consistent relativist cannot say, “It is an absolute truth for everyone that truth is only relatively true for me.” If he says it is absolutely true that relativism is true, then he is not a relativist but an absolutist. If, on the other hand, he says, ‘It is only relatively true that relativism is true,’ then we cannot know if relativism is really true, for if it is only relatively true for him (but not for all), then relativism may be false for me. Why then should it be accepted as true? Furthermore, for the relativist it can only be relatively true that it is relatively true for him, and so on infinitely. Either the claim that truth is relative is an absolute claim, which would falsify the relativist position, or it is an assertion that can never be made, because every time you make it you have to add another “relatively.” It is just the beginning of an infinite regress that will never pay off in a real statement. The only way the relativist can avoid the painful dilemma of relativism is to admit that there is absolute truth. Indeed, as already noted, most relativists really believe that relativism is absolutely true, for they really believe that everyone should be a relativist. Therein is the basic self-destructive nature of the relativist: He stands on the pinnacle of his own absolute truth to relativize everything else. But as the mythological Hercules understood, one needs a firm place to put a fulcrum before he can move the world. The sinking sand of relativism is not a firm place to set anything.”
He goes on to say, “If relativism were true, then the world would be full of contradictory conditions, for if something is true for one but false for another, then opposite conditions exist. If one person says, ‘There is milk in the refrigerator,’ and another insists, ‘There is no milk in the refrigerator’—and they are both right—then there must both be and not be milk in the refrigerator at the same time and in the same sense. This is impossible, since it violates the law of noncontradiction. So if truth were relative, the impossible would be actual. But that is not possible. In the religious realm it would mean that Billy Graham was telling the truth when he said ‘God exists,’ and Madalyn Murray O’Hair was also right when she claimed ‘God does not exist.’ But, as even a child knows, these two statements cannot both be true. If one is true, then the other is false. And since they exhaust the only possibilities, one of them must be true. If truth is relative, then no one is ever wrong—even when he is. As long as something is true to him, then he is right even when he is wrong. The drawback to this is that I could never learn anything, either, because learning is moving from a false belief to a true one—that is, from an absolutely false belief to an absolutely true one.”
The relativist would argue that no truth can be absolute because we only have limited knowledge of any given truth. It is true that we only have partial knowledge on most things that we know. Thus, begs the question, if you only have partial knowledge of all truths, how can any be absolute? First, we do not have absolute truths on everything, this is meant to mislead or detracts from the actual or otherwise important absolute truth. We do have absolute truths on some things. “One can be absolutely sure that he exists. In fact, one’s own existence is undeniable, for one would have to exist in order to make the statement “I do not exist.” One can also be absolutely sure that he cannot both exist and not exist at the same time. Just as he can be certain, for example, that there are no square circles.”
Geisler goes on to make the observation, “Of course, there are many more things of which absolute certainty is not possible. But even here relativists miss the mark in rejecting absolute truth simply because of the lack of absolute evidence that some things are true, for they fail to recognize that the truth can be absolute no matter what our grounds for believing it are. For instance, if it is true that Sydney, Australia, is next to the ocean, then it is absolutely true no matter what my evidence or lack of evidence may be. An absolute truth is absolutely true in and of itself no matter what evidence there is for it. Evidence (or the lack thereof) does not change the facts. And truth is what corresponds to the facts. The truth doesn’t change simply because we learn something more about it.”
Relativists argue that if we have absolute truth, there is no room for new truths or progress. In other words, if truth is absolute, it can never change. Thus, there ca never be new truth or progress on that truth. The truth of the matter is, if a new truth or progress about a given truth, it is only new to us, as it has already existed. While we might have an absolute truth about some form of cancer, as to what it is and what it does, or does not do, this does not mean that if we add to that knowledge, grow in understanding; it somehow negates our absolute truth. Then, if we discover the entirely new truth, like in the field of science, i.e., scientific discover, this is only new to us, it has been there all along and anything we learn about it, just as to the truth. Thus, new truths once they have become known do not change from being a truth any more than old truths change because we learn additional information.
The relativist would also argue that absolute truths change with new knowledge and understanding, so how can it be absolute. An example would be that God created the heavens, and the earth is absolutely true. This author believes that the creation days were periods of time, not literally 24-hours long. If new or additional information came from science or a better biblical understanding, or archaeology, which showed it, was literally 24-hour days, would this new information change the absolute truth that God created the heavens and the earth. Moreover, let us say that new information comes to light that undoes a truth that we thought was absolute, does this mean that there are no absolute truths? No. Really, the absolute truth never changes, the only thing that ever changes is the knowledge and understanding of that truth. Let us take an atheist that does not believe in God and is an apologist for atheism for his entire life. Then, science makes a breakthrough that offers impeachable evidence that a Creator exists. Does this information mean that there is no absolute truth about God? No, there is just need to humble oneself in light of the new information and reevaluate one’s view of God. Geisler offers, “When science truly progresses it does not move from an old truth to a new truth but from error to truth. When Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) argued that the earth moves around the sun and not the reverse, truth did not change. What changed was the scientific understanding about what moves around what.”
The relativist will also argue that belief is absolute truth is untenable, dogmatic and obnoxious. Geisler says, “This objection misses the point. All truth is absolute, for, as we have seen, if something is really true, then it is true for all people, times, and places. So in this sense everyone who claims anything is true is ‘dogmatic.’ (And, as has been demonstrated, there isn’t anyone who doesn’t claim that something is true.) Even the relativist who claims that relativism is true is dogmatic. Indeed, the relativist who claims that relativism is absolutely true is particularly dogmatic, for he is claiming that he has the only absolute truth that can be uttered, namely, that everything else is relative. Further, something important is overlooked in this charge of dogmatism. There is a big difference between the pejorative charge that belief in absolute truth is dogmatic and the manner in which someone may hold to this belief. No doubt the way many absolutists have held to and conveyed their belief in what truth is has been less than humble. However, no agnostic would consider it a telling argument against agnosticism that some agnostics have held to and communicated their agnosticism in a very dogmatic manner. What we have here is an entirely different issue, and while it is one that certainly is worthy of our examination, it has nothing to do with truth being absolute.”
Many liberal-progressive minded young ones, who have grown up on this relativism, might argue that they are just being open-mindedness, which only brings a positive impact on humanity. In contrast, like in the above, relativists would argue that those who believe in absolute truth are dogmatic and obnoxious, bringing nothing but a negative impact on humanity. Does relativism really bring a positive impact on humanity though? What about you, how does it really affect you? Do you believe that truth is relative? If you do, you may very well believe that to search into biblical truths about God, about humanity, about the future of humanity is nothing more than a waste of your time. Therefore, believe in relativism, it may very well influence your future, especially your eternal future. This book is not about defending absolute truth, proving its existence, or undermining those that hold to relativism. Rather, it is for people that believe that the Word of God is truth and those who may not believe such but want to investigate further. In addition, it is to help its readers understand what it means to be sanctified in the truth. Now, let us take a brief moment to look at the meaning of some biblical Hebrew and Greek words.
The Hebrew term emeth is often rendered “truth, “firmness,” “faithfulness:” “faith” “faithful,” “faithfully,” faithfulness,” and designates that which “firm,” “faithful,” “trustworthy,” “stable,” true,” or “established as fact.”
|WORD STUDY: emeth
faithfulness, reliability, trustworthiness, i.e., a state or condition of being dependable and loyal to a person or standard (Ge 24:27); 2. LN 72.1–72.11 true, certain, sure, i.e., that which conforms to reality, and is so certain not to be false (Dt 13:15), see also domain LN 70; 3. LN 88.39–88.45 honesty, integrity, i.e., be in a state or condition of telling the truth, and living according to a moral standard (Ne 7:2); 4. LN 33.35–33.68 unit: כְּתָב אֱמֶת (keṯāḇ ʾěměṯ) a reliable book, formally, Book of Truth, i.e., a writing in a heavenly scroll giving details of future things, with a focus on both certainty and reliability (Da 10:21+); 5. LN 67.78–67.117 lasting, enduring, i.e., a duration of time, without reference to other points of time (Jer 14:13)
The Greek word aletheia stands in contrast with falsehood or unrighteousness, (πλάνη) going astray or wondering (μῦθος) fiction or myth, (ψεῦδος) lie or falsehood, (ἀδικία) wrong or evil, (πρόφασις) pretext or excuse and denotes that which conforms to “the quality of being in accord with what is true, truthfulness, dependability, uprightness, the content of what is true, truth.”
|WORD STUDY: aletheia
of what has certainty and validity truth (EP 4.21), (2) of the real state of affairs, especially as divinely disclosed truth (RO 1.18), (3) of the concept of the gospel message as being absolute truth (2TH 2.12); (4) of true-to-fact statements truth, fact (LU 4.25), (5) of what is characterized by love of truth truthfulness, uprightness, fidelity (1C 5.8; 13.6), (6) of reality as opposed to pretense or mere appearance truth, sincerity (PH 1.18), idiomatically ἐν ἀληθείᾳ literally in truth, i.e. really, truly, indeed (MT 22.16); κατὰ ἀλήθειαν literally according to truth, i.e. rightly (RO 2.2); ἐπ̓ ἀληθείας literally on truth, i.e. really, actually (AC 4.27)
King David in the Psalms tells us that
Psalm 31:5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
5 Into your hand I commit my spirit;
you have redeemed me, O Jehovah, God of truth.
God is faithful in his dealings with others. He does not lie, nor has any need to feel regret so as to have to change his mind, he is holy, he can never die, his purposes are unchangeable, for they are always right and just. (Num. 23:19; 1 Sam. 15:29; Ps 89:35; Tit 1:2; Heb. 6:17-18) Whatever God does is by nature right (Rom. 3:4; 9:14; Ps 9:4, 8; 96:13; 145:17; Isa 45:19). God judges according to truth, namely, according to the way things really are, and not because of external, superficial appearance. (Rom. 2:2; John 7:24.) God has given us right judgments and true teachings, good regulations, and commandments. The judgments, laws, commandments, and word of God are truth. (Neh. 9:13; Ps 19:9; 119:142, 151, 160) His righteousness is an everlasting righteousness.
Unbelief and Its Consequences
Jeremiah 10:14 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
14 Every man is stupid and without knowledge;
every goldsmith is put to shame by his carved image,
for his molten images are false,
and there is no breath in them.
- B. Huey says, “The power of the true God contrasted with the powerlessness of idols. His power is manifested in his creation and control of the heavens and the earth. His control over the rain demonstrates his superiority to the pagan storm gods (Sumerian Enlil, Babylonian Adad and Marduk, Canaanite Baal). Those who worship such gods are as “senseless” (or “brutish,” i.e., like dumb animals) as the gods themselves. Those who make them should be shamed by their foolishness because their images are a fraud. They are without breath and are ‘worthless’ (see vv. 3, 8). When the time comes for their judgment, they will perish.”
Many scientists today are turning to the Creator, as the creation itself, the universe, the earth, and man offer testimony to God’s existence. However, according to the apostle Paul, in his day, there were those who ‘knew God’ because “his invisible attributes are clearly seen from the creation of the world, being perceived through what has been made,” yet they denied this truth. (Rom. 1:20-21) Rather “they did not honor him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their reasoning, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.” (Rom. 1:21-23) While the so-called wise of today may not be serving or worshipping graven images, they are worshipping themselves. This rejection of the only true God was lies, falsehoods, and untruths in Paul’s day, and so they are today.
Therefore, these persons, though having the truth of God, “they exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator.” (Rom. 1:25) In the case of today, that creature that theses ones worship is the human creature, i.e., humanism. Humanism is a system of thought that is based on the values, characteristics, and behavior that are believed to be best in human beings, rather than on any supernatural authority. In Paul’s day, as was true for many centuries before, this rejection of the truth of God and turning instead to the falsehood of idolatry led them into all kinds of degraded practices. “Their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature, and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were violently inflamed in their lust toward one another, males with males committing the shameless deed, and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error.” (Rom. 1:26-27) Most of the world has already accepted homosexuality as just an alternative lifestyle, but America grounded in the Judeo-Christian principles of its founders had restrained this practice from being acceptable. However, in the last ten years, the liberal-progressive movement has changed all of that. “Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them.” (Rom. 1:24) He has given “them over to degrading passions, to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper.” (Rom 1:26, 28) On verses 26-27, Robert H. Mounce writes,
Again it is stated that “God gave them over” (cf. v. 24). God’s anger against sin leads him to withdraw from the sinner who willfully continues in wickedness. The penalty for sin is sin itself with all its inevitable consequences. Because people failed to glorify God and give him thanks, God gave them over “to sexual impurity” (v. 24). Because they exchanged the glory of God for a lie, he gave them over to the “passions that bring dishonor” (v. 26).
Romans 1:26–27 contains the clearest teaching in the New Testament on homosexuality. In this section Paul described the practice as “shameful,” “unnatural,” “indecent,” and as a “perversion.” By contrast, the Greco-Roman society of Paul’s day tolerated homosexuality with considerable ease. Among some advocates it was viewed as superior to heterosexuality. Barclay notes that “fourteen out of the first fifteen Roman Emperors were homosexuals.”
In Jewish culture, however, it was regarded as an abomination. Barrett comments that “no feature of pagan society filled the Jew with greater loathing than the toleration, or rather admiration, of homosexual practices.” The Old Testament specifically prohibits homosexuality. Leviticus 18:22 says, “Do not lie with a man as one lies with a woman; that is detestable.” The penalty for both participants was death (Lev 20:13). In 1 Cor 6:9–10 Paul specifically said that “homosexual offenders” will not “inherit the kingdom of God.” Against this background it is difficult to understand why some contemporary teachers—even some who claim to be biblical—make allowance for a practice clearly condemned in both the Old and the New Testaments. Achtemeier writes that the kind of life Paul described in vv. 26–27 “cannot be understood as an alternative life-style, somehow acceptable to God” but rather as “a sign of one of the forms God’s wrath takes when he allows us free reign to continue in our abuse of creation and in our abuse of one another as creatures.”
Several specifics in this section call for attention. The NIV and several other translations say that “even their women” are caught up in the unnatural practice of lesbianism. Even they have turned from natural to unnatural sexual practices. God did not intend women to “have sex” with other women. It is the shameful result of willful moral disobedience. Stuhlmacher calls lesbian love “a sinful reversal of Gen. 1:27f.” Men, as well, have abandoned natural relations with women and are “inflamed with lust for one another.” The sexual drive itself is wholesome and good. It is God’s way of providing both pleasure and progeny. When directed toward a person of the same sex, it abandons its God-given purpose and becomes a degrading passion.
When men commit “indecent acts with other men,” they receive back “the due penalty for their perversion” (Rom 1:27). Once again we see the necessary relationship between sin and its consequences. To put it in terms of Newton’s third law of motion, every sin calls for an “equal and opposite” response. The “inevitable recompense” for homosexuality is to receive back the regular consequence of that practice. Since we live in a moral universe, moral failure must of necessity carry a penalty. Homosexuality, as a perversion of God’s intended relationship between man and woman, carries its own destructive penalty.
When we consider God’s chosen people, the Israelites, who really began in the early 21st century B.C.E. with Abraham, up unto the time of Jesus Christ’s execution in 33 C.E., we have 2,050 years of such egregious sins (adultery, murder, stealing, child sacrifice to false gods), God chose to allow his people to be destroyed three times by pagan nations. There was the Israelite ten-tribe kingdom in the eighth century B.C.E. by Assyria, the two-tribe kingdom in the late seventh century B.C.E. by Babylon and 70 C.E. by the Roman Empire. The great sin of the Israelite people in no way takes away from or detracts from the true, just and righteous Creator. Rather, his truthfulness, holiness, and righteousness stood out in sharp contrast and evidenced his glory to all. However, while the sinfulness of fallen man has only served to highlight the righteousness and justness of God, this does nothing to suggest that God was unjust in caring out his judgments on wrongdoers. (SEE APPENDIX A-C) Being a created human, with free will, given no one, the right to abuse that free will to harm himself by sinning or harm others by his sinning.
Paul himself made the above point in his letter to the Romans. He said, “But if our unrighteousness demonstrates the righteousness of God, what shall we say? God, who inflicts wrath, is not unjust, is he? (I am speaking in human terms.) May it never be! For otherwise, how will God judge the world? But if through my lie [compare Ps 62:9] the truth of God abounded to his glory, why am I also still being judged as a sinner? And why not say, just as we are slandered, and as some affirm that we say, ‘Let us do evil things that good things may come’? Their condemnation is just.” (Rom. 3:5-8) God can be seen as being even more glorious because of his deliverance of humanity from sin, sickness, old age and death. Yes, in an imperfect human mind, it has gone on for over six thousand years. However, in the view of God, a thousand years is as though a day. If humans were living forever as God had intended for Adam and Eve, we would perceive time differently as well. There is good reason as to why God has allowed wickedness and suffering. Paul goes on to write, “Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its lusts, and do not go on presenting the members of your body to sin as instruments of unrighteousness; but present yourselves to God as those alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God.”―Romans 6:12-13.
John 14:5-6 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
5 Thomas said to him, “Lord, we do not know where you are going; how are we able to know the way?” 6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father except through me.
There is no Gospel where Jesus talks more about the Father than here in the Gospel of John. We have already mentioned in the Preface that Jesus tells us the only way to God the Father is through Jesus Christ the Son. Think about what this means for a moment. Jesus told us in Matthew 7:21, “‘Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven.” The apostle John tells us, “The world is passing away, and its lusts; but the one who does the will of God [i.e., the Father] remains forever.” (1 John 2:17) Therefore, Jesus is “the [only] way” we can enter into an approved relationship with the Father. Why is this the way? Jesus said, “The Son of Man came … to give his soul as a ransom for many.” (Matt. 20:28) Yes, Jesus remained faithful unto death, and gave his perfect life, which corresponds to the perfect life Adam lost, as a ransom for anyone who wished to trust in him. If it were not for this ransom, we would not have access to the Father. The prophet Isaiah says that the Father is holy and that imperfect humanity and our sinful state ‘that separate us from the Father when we try to worship him so that he does not hear us.’ (Isaiah 6:3; 59:2) However, it was the sacrifice of Jesus that removed this barrier, giving us the necessary covering, or atonement, for our sin. (Heb. 10:12; 1 John 1:7) If we accept the ransom sacrifice of Christ Jesus and trust in him, we can not only regain access with the Father but gain his favor as well. There is no other way or path to that reconciliation with the Father.
Romans 5:6-11 Updated American Standard Version (U ASV)
6 For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7 For one will scarcely die for a righteous man; though perhaps for a good man one would dare even to die. 8 But God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. 9 Much more then, having now been justified by his blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through him. 10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. 11 Not only that, but we are also exulting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.
Jesus is also “the way” when it comes to our prayers to the Father. The apostle John writes, “These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, in order that you may know that you have eternal life. And this is the confidence that we have before him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us.” Jesus himself said, “… whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you.” He also said, “… if you ask of the Father for anything in my name, he will give it to you. Until now you have asked for nothing in my name; ask and you will receive so that your joy may be made full.” (John 16:23-24) It is because of “the way” that Jesus’ Father now becomes “our Father.” (Matt. 6:9) Therefore, Jesus said of himself, “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever things that One does, these things the Son does likewise. He also said, “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I seek not my own will but the will of him who sent me.” (John 5:19, 30) Therefore, imitating the Son is imitating the Father. The apostle Peter tells us, “… because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you should follow in his footsteps.”―1 Peter 2:21.
“Truth is in Jesus.” (John 1:14; Eph. 4:21) The truth about salvation leads to the whole of all Christian truth, which is found in the person of Jesus. While on earth, Jesus Christ was ‘a man who has told those to whom he had witnessed the truth that he had heard from his Father.’ Jesus said to the Jews, “But because I tell the truth, you do not trust in me. Which one of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not trust in me?” (John 8:40, 45-46) Jesus “committed no sin, nor was any deceit found in his mouth.” (1 Pet. 2:22) Even Jesus’ own enemies had to acknowledge openly that he taught “the way of God in truth.” (Mark 12:13-14) The apostle John wrote: “For the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.” (John 1:17) “In a sense, the rest of the New Testament is an exposition of the grace and the truth which came through Jesus.” “Moses was the head of Israel: ‘The law was given through Moses’ (John 1:17). Christ is the Head of the church: ‘Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ’ (John. 1:17; cf. Eph. 5:23). Israel was baptized into Moses (1 Cor. 10:2); believers are baptized into Christ (12:13).” Jesus called himself ‘the way and the truth and the life’ (John 14:6). Knowing Christ is knowing the Truth, and this liberates one from sin’s slavery (John 8:32). Jesus was so transparently true that the Pharisees resisted him.
When John says, “the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ” (John 1:17), he did not mean that the Mosaic Law was flawed. The Psalmist tells us that ‘all of God’s commandments are truth.’ (Psa. 119:151) The apostle Paul tells us “the Law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good.” (Rom. 7:10-12, NASB) However, the Law served a limited purpose. Paul tells us, “Before faith [i.e., Jesus Christ] came, we were kept in custody under the law, being shut up to the faith which was later to be revealed. Therefore the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith [i.e., Jesus Christ] has come, we are no longer under a tutor.” (Gal 3:23-25) In other words, the Mosaic Law served as a tutor leading to Christ. It was a guide, guardian and a little bit of a teacher leading to Christ. ‘The Law had only a shadow [prophetic picture] of the good things to come and not the very form of things [greater realities].’ (Heb. 8:4, 5; 10:1-5) The Mosaic Law was a slight preview of the good things to come, though truthful, was not the full truth, that is, not the good things themselves; it was a shadowy outline of the good things to come, giving way to the realities that it foreshadowed. Paul made this point clear in Colossians 2:16-17, “Therefore let no man judge you about what you eat and drink or about the observance of a festival or of the new moon or of a sabbath day. These are a shadow of the things to come, but the reality belongs to Christ.” Therefore, the “truth came through Jesus Christ” he took the truths foreshadowed by the Law and placed them in the reality of the full or complete truth. Jesus was no shadow of anything else to come; he was the reality, “the truth.” The Mosaic Law was not the full truth, Jesus was.
When Jesus said ‘I am the truth,” he was meaning far more than his making the truth known by way of his preaching and teaching. If we turn to the Old Testament, we notice scores of prophecies about the coming Messiah, the Christ, anointed one. Nostradamus was a sixteenth-century French apothecary (a person who prepared and sold medicines and drugs) and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become widely famous. Every prophecy of Nostradamus was a one-line sentence that if given enough time, it will come true. If I were to say, “One day a bald man will rule America; it is only a matter of time. The numerous prophecies in the Old Testament were true prophets of God, offering many details about his life, ministry, and death.
Again, the Mosaic Law contained shadows, or prophetic patterns, that pointed to the coming Messiah. (Heb. 10:1) Would these prophecies about this coming Messiah come true, down to the last detail, many of which, were to take place when he was an infant or child and when he was being executed, namely, outside of his control? It was when Jesus ascended back to heaven, to sit down at the right side of the Father; we find that all of the prophecies about him were fulfilled, even if many of the Jewish religious leaders were slow to understand. Jesus knew his role and he had to carry that weight throughout his entire life and ministry. The apostle Paul tells us, “For all the promises of God find their Yes in him [Jesus that is]. That is why it is through him that we utter our Amen to God for his glory.” Hence, Jesus was “the truth.” It was as though the truth of the Father’s prophetic word came to us in the person of Jesus.—John 1:17; Colossians 2:16-17.
Jesus is “the life,” as he is the only way to the “real life” that Paul spoke of (1 Tim. 6:9), which can only come through Jesus Christ. Lea and Griffin comment on 1 Timothy 6:9, “Paul stressed that generous actions allow the giver to lay hold of eternal life in the here and now. Paul had urged Timothy to lay hold of this in v. 12. Here Paul expressed that taking hold of eternal life is a goal of the unselfish giving he had commanded. Christians who enter the life of love by unselfish behavior will enter gloriously into God’s presence in the life to come.” Kenneth O. Gangel writes, “Jesus is the way—reconciliation; Jesus is the truth—illumination; Jesus is the life—regeneration. This is the exclusive gospel. The New Testament knows nothing of universalism—the idea that God will find some way to save everybody. What could be clearer than Jesus’ words in verse 6, No one comes to the Father except through me.” Andreas J. Köstenberger says, “Jesus is the life-giver because, like the Father, he has life in himself. He “was with God in the beginning” (1:2), and ‘in him was life’ (1:4). As God breathed life into the original creation, so Jesus gives life to those who believe in him (cf. 1:12–13; 3:3, 5, 7–8). Without such life, people will remain in death (5:24), “darkness” (3:19), and under God’s wrath (3:36).
The Bible says, “For God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, in order that everyone trusting in him will not be destroyed but have eternal life.” “The one trusting in the Son has eternal life, but the one who disobeys the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.” (John 3:16, 36, UASV) What does it mean to trust in the Son of God? The grammatical construction of pisteuo “believe” followed by eis “into” plus the accusative causing a different shade of meaning, having faith into Jesus. It means, “To believe to the extent of complete trust and reliance—‘to believe in, to have confidence in, to have faith in, to trust, faith, trust.’” Gangel says, “Any approach to God apart from Jesus Christ is futile. Religions, cults, and civic groups miss the message of the Bible when they talk frequently about God but do not want to disturb the pluralistic harmony of their members by emphasizing Jesus Christ. God allows no approach to himself apart from his Son. Whoever rejects the Son has forfeited eternal life and receives instead the wrath of God. This is what the Bible means when it says life is in the Son.”
However, it is more than mere belief. Jesus half-brother James tells us, “For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, so also faith apart from works is dead.” Brent Calloway writes, “When a person (a soul) dies (beyond clinical death), there is no longer any animating force or “spirit” within any single cell out of the body’s one hundred trillion cells. Many of us have seen the animation video in science classes at school, where the cell is shown to be like a microscopic factory with an enormous amount of work taking place. Therefore, no work is taking place within the lifeless body, as all of the cells that were animated by the spirit are dead. The body is not good for anything. This is the similarity that James is trying to draw as a faith that lacks works is just as lifeless, producing no results and of no use as a corpse. The literal eye cannot see faith; however, works is an evident demonstration that faith can be seen. When one has is not moved to good works, it is all too clear that this one has no real faith. Alternatively, any Christian that is motivated to good works possesses a genuine faith.”
What about those, like Lazarus, who have already died? Jesus said, “Do not marvel at this because an hour is coming when all who are in the memorial tombs will hear his voice and come out, those who have done good things to a resurrection of life, and those who have practiced evil things to the resurrection of judgment.” (John 5:28-29) When Jesus returns, he will bring many angels, and wipe out the wicked. However, the righteous will not be destroyed, and the righteous prior to Jesus first coming back in the first century, will receive a resurrection. The unrighteous, which had never had the opportunity to know God, will also be resurrected for a chance to hear the Good News, and then, they will be judged on what they do during the millennial reign of Christ. Acts 24:15) Therefore, the punishment for sin is death, the punishment for those, who “keep on sinning deliberately after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins,” i.e., eternal death. However, “there will be a resurrection of both the just and the unjust [i.e., those who never heard the Good News].”–Acts 24:15
Revelation 21:3-4 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne, saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and he will dwell among them, and they shall be his people, and God himself will be among them, 4 and he will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.”
John 18:37 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
37 Then Pilate said to him, “So you are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice.”
To Pilate’s question, “So you are a king?” Jesus replied, “You say that I am a king. For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice.” (John 18:37) As we have seen in the above Scriptures, the truth to which he testified was not just truth in general. Jesus revealed to us what purposes of his Father were and is, the truth based on the important fact of God’s sovereign will and His ability to accomplish that will. Jesus said to his disciples, “To you it has been granted to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been granted.” In his ministry, Jesus revealed the “secret” as being God’s Kingdom with Jesus Christ, the “son of David,” serving as King and Priest on the throne. (See Luke 1:32, 33; 2:10-14; 3:31) In Paul’s writings, he gives a full view of the revelation of the “secret” of the Christ. At Ephesians 1:8-11 he says,
Ephesians 1:8-12 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
8 which he made abundant toward us in all wisdom and insight, 9 making known to us the mystery [secret plan] of his will, according to his good pleasure that he purposed in him 10 for the administration of the fullness of times, to bring together all things in Christ, the things in the heavens and the things on the earth. 11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, having been foreordained according to his purpose who works all things after the counsel of his will, 12 so that we who were the first to hope in Christ might be to the praise of his glory.
This “secret” involves the Messianic Kingdom of God. The things in the heavens are those who have been “made them a kingdom and priests to our God, and they shall reign over the earth.” (Rev. 5:9-10) These are Jesus’ co-rulers, who will rule with him in his Kingdom for a thousand years. The apostle John writes, “Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.” (Rev. 20:4) Therefore, “the things in the heavens,” which Paul is referring to, are the co-rulers of that heavenly Kingdom with Christ. “The things on the earth” will be earthly subjects of the kingdom of heaven. The apostle Paul gave further details when he explained that the (mystery) “secret” or secret plan includes the Christian congregation, of which Christ is Head. (Eph. 5:32; Col 1:18; Rev 1:20) The whole ministry of Jesus Christ was, therefore, a ‘testifying to the truth,’ to the things to which the Father had long proclaimed. Jesus was thus no shadow; he was the long awaited Messiah or Christ, he was the King and Priest, who would rule the kingdom of the heavens.—Romans 15:8-12; Psalm 18:49; 117:1; Deuteronomy 32:43; Isaiah 11:10.
1:8–10. We were also “enlightened” through Christ, when God made known to us the mystery of his will. The mystery known to believers but unknown and not understood by unbelievers is that when the time is right God will bring all things in heaven and earth to a fitting conclusion in Christ who will be the head or ruler of all things.
In the O[ld] T[estament] the kingdom of God is usually described in terms of a redeemed earth; this is especially clear in the book of Isaiah, where the final state of the universe is already called new heavens and a new earth (65:17; 66:22) The nature of this renewal was perceived only very dimly by OT authors, but they did express the belief that a humans ultimate destiny is an earthly one. This vision is clarified in the N[ew] T[estament]. Jesus speaks of the “renewal” of the world (Matt 19:28), Peter of the restoration of all things (Acts 3:21). Paul writes that the universe will be redeemed by God from its current state of bondage (Rom. 8:18-21). This is confirmed by Peter, who describes the new heavens and the new earth as the Christian’s hope (2 Pet. 3:13). Finally, the book of Revelation includes a glorious vision of the end of the present universe and the creation of a new universe, full of righteousness and the presence of God. The vision is confirmed by God in the awesome declaration: “I am making everything new!” (Rev. 21:1-8).
The new heavens and the new earth will be the renewed creation that will fulfill the purpose for which God created the universe. It will be characterized by the complete rule of God and by the full realization of the final goal of redemption: “Now the dwelling of God is with men” (Rev. 21:3).
The fact that the universe will be created anew shows that God’s goals for humans is not an ethereal and disembodied existence, but a bodily existence on a perfected earth. The scene of the beatific vision is the new earth. The spiritual does not exclude the created order and will be fully realized only within a perfected creation. (Elwell 2001, 828-29)
God created the earth to be inhabited, to be filled with perfect humans, who are over the animals, and under the sovereignty of God. (Gen 1:28; 2:8, 15; Ps 104:5; 115:16; Eccl 1:4) Sin did not dissuade God from his plans (Isa. 45:18); hence, he has saved redeemable humankind by Jesus ransom sacrifice. It seems that the Bible offers two hopes to redeemed humans, (1) a heavenly hope [i.e., the chosen ones], or (2) an earthly hope. It also seems that those with the heavenly hope are limited in number, and are going to heaven to rule with Christ as kings, priests, and judges either on the earth or over the earth from heaven. It seems that those with the earthly hope are going to receive everlasting life here on a paradise earth as originally intended.
John 8:31-47 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
The Truth Will Set You Free
31 So Jesus said to the Jews who had believed him, “If you remain in my word, you are truly my disciples, 32 and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.” 33 They answered him, “We are offspring of Abraham and have never been enslaved to anyone. How is it that you say, ‘You will become free’?”
Enslaved to Sin
34 Jesus answered them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who practices sin is a slave to sin. 35 The slave does not remain in the house forever; the son remains forever. 36 So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed. 37 I know that you are offspring of Abraham; yet you seek to kill me because my word finds no place in you. 38 I speak of what I have seen with my Father, and you do what you have heard from your father.”
You Are of Your Father the Devil
39 They answered him, “Abraham is our father.” Jesus said to them, “If you are Abraham’s children, you would be doing the works Abraham did, 40 but now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God. Abraham did not do this. 41 You are doing the works your father did.” They said to him, “We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, even God.” 42 Jesus said to them, “If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came from God and I am here. I came not of my own accord, but that One sent me. 43 Why do you not understand what I am saying? It is because you are not able to hear my word. 44 You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. That one was a manslayer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks out of his own character, for he is a liar and the father of lies. 45 But because I tell the truth, you do not trust in me. 46 Which one of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not trust in me? 47 Whoever is of God hears the words of God. The reason why you do not hear them is that you are not of God.”
John 14:15-17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
15 “If you love me, you will keep my commandments. 16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, that he may be with you forever; 17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it does not see him or know him, but you know him because he remains [meno] with you and will be in you. (see Appendix D)
The Holy Spirit, through the Spirit-inspired, inerrant Word of God is the motivating factor for our taking off the old person and putting on the new person. (Eph. 4:20-24; Col. 3:8-9) It is also the tool used by God so that we can “be transformed by the renewal of your mind so that you may approve what is the good and well-pleasing and perfect will of God.” (Rom. 12:2; See 8:9) What miraculous, supernatural gifts were the apostles and a select few workers to receive, to establish first century Christianity? They would receive a helper, comforter, an instructor, a guide, a supporter, i.e., the Holy Spirit.
What did Jesus say about the Holy Spirit, being specifically applied to the apostles and a select few other fellow workers, to accomplish their work of establishing Christianity and completing the Bible? He had much to say on this, as we will discover from the texts below. Italics and underlines are mine.
John 14:26 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
26 But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, that one will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.
John 15:26 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
26 “But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, that one will bear witness about me.
John 16:5-8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
5 But now I am going to him who sent me, and none of you asks me, ‘Where are you going?’ 6 But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your heart. 7 Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. 8 And when that one arrives, he will convict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment;
John 16:12-15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
12 “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. 13 But when that one, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak from himself, but whatever he hears, he will speak; and he will declare to you the things that are to come. 14 That one will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. 15 All the things that the Father has are mine; therefore I said that he takes what is mine and will declare it to you.
In the above texts, we have a number of things that the Holy Spirit was to do for the apostles and a select few other fellow workers. Can the Holy Spirit do the same for us? No, the Holy Spirit cannot, at least not in the same way and the same sense. How, then, can we receive the Holy Spirit, to be instructed, guide, taught, reminded and to be directed in our witnessing to others in our evangelism work? As an aside, the answer will apply to every other facet of our Christian life as well, we just happen to be focusing on the evangelism aspect. Let us look at the thought of the Holy Spirit instructing and teaching Christians. Today we have over 41,000 different denominations, all teaching different doctrinal positions on the same subject matter. If we choose just one denomination, we find that each of the tens of thousands of pastors in the churches does not have to teach the same thing about the same doctrine. Then, let us take and one church within that denominations, and we will find that the church members do not all believe the same thing as their pastor.
Thus, we have all sorts of men teaching different views on every doctrine. Let us look at a few examples, so we can better understand. In dealing with the inspiration of God’s Word, most church leaders teaches The Infallibilist View, meaning that they believe the Bible is infallible only in matters of faith, but that it contains many mistakes, errors, and contradictions in matters when it touches on science, history, and geography. On the other hand, few conservative church leaders still teach The Inerrantist View, meaning that they believe the Bible is without error of any kind. On the doctrine of the atonement, some leaders have The Penal Substitution View, meaning that they believe that Christ died in our place. Others have the Christus Victor View, meaning that they believe Christ destroyed Satan and his works. While others have The Moral Government View, meaning that they believe Christ displayed God’s wrath against sin. Concerning the doctrine of Sanctification, there are four main views. We have the Lutheran View, meaning sanctification as a declaration by God. We have the Calvinist view, meaning sanctification as holiness in Christ and personal conduct. Then, we have the Keswick View, meaning sanctification as resting-faith in the sufficiency of Christ. In addition, we have the Wesleyan, View, meaning entire sanctification as perfect love. Even these four beliefs on sanctification are not completely accepted because each church leader can tweak it to fit his understanding of things. These doctrines are just the beginning. We could cover The Providence Debate, i.e., the sovereignty of God. We could talk about different foreknowledge beliefs; the divine image differences the different salvation beliefs, the different beliefs about the human constitution, eternal security, the destiny of the evangelized, baptism, charismatic gifts, hellfire, and numerous others.
These differences in the Christian leader’s beliefs are often contradictory. Are we to believe that the Holy Spirit wanted church leaders to teach that sinners are destined to enteral torment in hellfire while other leaders teach eternal destruction for the sinners? Are we to believe that the Holy Spirit teaches different church leaders four different views on sanctification? The belief that the Holy Spirit is still carrying out the same work today as what the Father and the Son assigned in the first century, place the Holy Spirit in a very unenviable position, i.e., teaching different views on the same doctrine, some of which are even contradictory. Can we accept that the Holy Spirit teaches different views on all doctrinal positions, even being contradictory? Remember, it was the Holy Spirit, who taught and instructed the apostles miraculously. The Holy Spirit guided them as well. One way was in their writings, as no New Testament author contradicted another, they were all one because there was really one author, God. This is actually true of all forty plus authors of the entire Bible. Thus, we are to believe that the Holy Spirit moved over forty Bible authors miraculously, over a 1,600 year period, to pen sixty-six Bible books, in all of which there is not one contraction, error or mistake, but now the Holy Spirit is teaching different views and contradictory information? We would not say in the church of and leader, who taught contradictory information, so why would we accept that the Holy Spirit would do such a thing. Supposing that churches evangelized their own communities, which they do not, but let us suppose they did. How should an atheist feel if different churches came to his home to witness to him and they told him contradictory views about the same doctrine?
The problem is the belief that the Holy Spirit is carrying out the same work after that work was completed in the first century. Only the apostles and a select few fellow workers received the Holy Spirit in a direct and supernatural way, teaching them, guiding them, instructing them, bringing back to their remembrance all that Jesus had said. The apostle Paul told Timothy, “The things which you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses, entrust these to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.” (2 Tim. 2:2) We all know that Timothy traveled with Paul for 15 years, being taught by Paul (Paul already being extremely educated by Gamaliel), but more importantly, miraculously taught and instructed by the Holy Spirit. This clearly was not the case with Timothy (his being taught and instructed by the Holy Spirit in the same way and to the same extent), as Timothy was taught by Paul and his study of the Old Testament Scriptures. This text evidences that we are to be taught and instructed by Holy Spirit by way of our study the Holy, Spirit-inspired Scriptures.
If the Holy Spirit were miraculously teaching and instructing Christians today, as took place with the apostles and a select few fellow workers, there would be no need for any sort of Bible study tools, such as Bible dictionaries, encyclopedias, word study dictionaries, commentaries, and the like. Even so, while there are no direct Scriptures to evidence Timothy receiving Holy Spirit in the same way as Paul and the twelve apostles, we know that Holy Spirit led Paul to Timothy on his second missionary tour. We know that Paul saw something in Timothy that brought about a 15-year friendship and bond between the two like no other. Timothy became an extremely valuable co-worker of the apostle Paul, in a time, when the Holy Spirit was building the first-century Christian congregation. Therefore, we cannot discount the possibility that the Holy Spirit guided Timothy as Paul had been, maybe not to the same degree, and that he was not taught and instructed in the same way and sense but used more directly by the Holy Spirit than those after the first century, including us today. Let us get back to the apostles for a moment. Let us look at the apostles in the very beginning of Acts, as Jesus tells them,
Acts 1:8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you will be my witnesses in both Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the extremity of the earth.”
Earlier, Jesus had told them that he was going away and that he was sending them a helper, the Holy Spirit. Now, he specifically tells them, “You [namely, the apostles] will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” Just after Jesus said these things, as they were watching, he ascended back to heaven to be with the Father. Some days later on Sivan 6, 33 C.E., they would receive the power of the Holy Spirit, where there was an outpouring of Holy Spirit. (Acts 2:1-17, 38) If they had already received the Holy Spirit, they would not have needed to call the brothers together to determine who was going to replace Judas as the twelfth apostle. Moreover, “they cast lots for them [Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also called Justus, and Matthias], and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.”–Acts 1:15-26
Jesus told his listeners,
Luke 11:13 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
13 If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him?”
If we want to receive the Holy Spirit, we just go to the Father in prayer and ask him. If we want to be bolder in our sharing of the good news, we can pray to God for the Holy Spirit. However, we must not misunderstand the Scriptures, so as to expect the miraculous, supernatural gifts of the Holy Spirit in the same sense and the same way as the apostle, their fellow workers, and the Christians of the first century. If want to become a better teacher in the Bible class at our churches, we will have to be a better Bible student, take in many Scriptures that deal with the principles of being a more effective teacher, put these into practice, and maybe pick up some good Christian books on being a better teacher. In this way, we would be working in harmony with our prayer, because the Word of God is Spirit inspired, and thus the more we delve into it and apply it in a correct and balanced manner; in essence, we are getting more Holy Spirit. If we want to teach the Bible to the Spanish-speaking people in our community, we may want to learn the Spanish language.
Some might believe that I am suggesting that the Holy Spirit is not active today. This is not the case. It is not the question of whether the Spirit is active, but how the Spirit is active. We can all agree that the Holy Spirit is pleading with the unsaved world, to help them find the path of salvation that leads to accepting Jesus Christ. This is not accomplished in some miraculous, supernatural way, but rather through our work as ambassadors for Christ. New Testament Bible scholar, Richard L. Pratt Jr., made the following comment on 1 Corinthians 5:20a,
Paul’s role in the divine plan of reconciliation led him to a remarkable claim. He and his company were Christ’s ambassadors. “Ambassadors” was a technical, political term used in Paul’s day that closely parallels our English word “ambassadors.” An ambassador represented a nation or kingdom in communication with other nations. Paul had in mind his apostolic call to represent the kingdom of Christ to the nations of the earth. Ambassadors held positions of great honor in the ancient world because they represented the authority of the kings on whose behalf they spoke.
This was also true for Paul as the ambassador of Christ. When he spoke the message of reconciliation, it was as though God were making his appeal through him. Rather than speaking directly to the nations of the earth, God ordained that human spokespersons would speak for him. As an apostle, Paul had authority to lead and guide the church (2 Cor. 13:3, 10). Yet, this description applies to all who bear the gospel of Christ to others—even to those who do not bear apostolic authority (1 Pet. 4:11). Though we may not present the gospel as perfectly as Paul did, we do speak on God’s behalf when we bring the message of grace to others. But Paul and his company were to be received as mouthpieces of God in the most authoritative sense. (Pratt Jr 2000, p. 359)
2 Corinthians 5:16-20 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
16 From now on, therefore, we regard no one according to the flesh. Even though we once regarded Christ according to the flesh, we regard him thus no longer. 17 Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old things have passed away; behold, new things have come. 18 And all these things are from God, who has reconciled us to himself through Christ, and who has given us the ministry of reconciliation, 19 namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation. 20 Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were making an appeal through us; we beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God.
As ambassadors for Christ, we are not seeking to offer superficial feel-good solutions to the problems of their imperfection, nor the wicked world in which we live. We are not telling them that, if they accept Christ, God will take care of their problems, and they will feel better about life. Sadly, many who first come to a Christian meeting are looking for just that; they want God to help them cope with the imperfection that surrounds their every waking moment. We certainly can counsel them biblically, which will enable them to improve their lot in life, will help them be stronger in dealing with this imperfection we all face, and, generally speaking, if they live a Christlike life, there will be fewer problems that a worldly life. However, our serving as ambassadors for Christ, this is not the goal of our service to the unbelieving world. We are offering them the same gospel that Paul did. In other words, the Father loved the world of humankind so much; he offered the only begotten Son, and the Father is willing to forgive any of their Adamic, inherited sin, by means of Christ Jesus. Paul wrote,
Romans 5:10-12, 8:32 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. 11 Not only that, but we are also exulting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.
12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned,
32 He who did not spare his own Son, but delivered him over for us all, how will he not also with him freely give us all things?
John 17:17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
17 Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.
The Word of God is absolute truth that gives us the realities of how things really are. It reveals the attributes, purposes, and commands of God, as well as the truth of how humans came to be, why we are here, and what we can expect in the future. The Word of God is the road map to what is expected our of us if we are to be sanctified and made holy, to be set apart from Satan’s world, to carry out the will of the Father. (Matt 7:21; 28:19-20; 1 John 2:17) It also sets out what is expected of us if we are to remain sanctified. (Heb. 5:9; 6:4-6; 10:26-27; Matt 24:13; Phil. 2:12; Eph. 2:8-9; Jam 2:14, 26) Hence, Jesus could pray respecting his disciples, “Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.” (Joh 17:17; compare Jam 1:18.) Peter writes,
1 Peter 1:22-23 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
22 The souls of you having been purified by obedience to the truth, for an unhypocritical love of the brothers, intensely love one another from the heart, 23 having been born again, not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and enduring word of God.
The response of holy living that should result from the new birth is now applied to three areas. Obedience to the truth purifies and produces (a) a sincere love for the brethren (1:22–25), (b) repentance from sin (2:1), and (c) a desire for spiritual growth (2:2). [Commenting on 2 John 4], Evidently John had encountered members of this church (some of your children; cf. v. 1) somewhere and was delighted (it has given me great joy; cf. 3 John 3–4) to observe their obedience to the truth. He used their fidelity, which he had observed, as a positive starting point. What they were doing (walking in the truth; cf. 3 John 3–4) was precisely what the Father commanded. To walk in the truth is to be obedient to the truth God has made known. John wanted the whole church to do the same.
Psalm 25:5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
5 Lead me in your truth and teach me,
for you are the God of my salvation;
for you I wait all the day long.
For a deeper discussion of walking the truth, please see Chapter 15. Mounce’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words defines the Hebrew term (emet) “truth” as “faithfulness, reliability, trustworthiness; truth, what conforms to reality in contrast to what is false.” (Mounce 2006, 896) Jehovah God, the Creator of heaven and earth is our only true source of information as to the truth of humanity’s current circumstances (i.e., our imperfect condition). He has complete understanding of everything that he has created, which includes humankind. He knows our design, which means our optimum circumstances for enjoying the life that he gave us. He is also well aware of how to deal with the rebellion of our first parents, Adam and Eve. He is also aware of what the future holds as well.
Psalm 31:5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
5 Into your hand I commit my spirit;
you have redeemed me, O Jehovah, God of truth.
Jesus himself said to the Father in a prayer of the disciples, “Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.” (John 17:17) Since we are able to place complete trust in every word God has inspired, we need to heed his direction about human behavior, as it is entirely trustworthy. Young Prince Hezekiah says of Jehovah, “all your commandments are true.” (Ps. 119:151) The promises that he lays out with his Word, the Bible are dependable. After a lifetime of trusting Jehovah, Joshua said, “nothing failed from all the good things that Yahweh promised to the house of Israel; everything came to pass.” (Josh. 21:45) Thus, from the books of Moses to the book of Revelation, we see that God is ‘righteous and true in all his ways.’―Revelation 15:3.
Adam and Eve were created in the image of God and were a reflection of his qualities and attributes. Even after the fall, in humanities state of imperfection, we still maintain a good measure of that image. For that reason, there is little surprise that the Creator of humankind would expect us to continue to walk in his truth, or that the lovers of truth would want to walk in his truth. How are we to accomplish this in our imperfection? The Apostle Paul provided that answer when he wrote, “this is good and acceptable before God our Savior, who wants all people to be saved and to come to an accurate knowledge of the truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) We need to acquire an accurate knowledge of who God is, why he created the earth, humans, and his will and purpose for us and the earth. What does he expect of us, his followers? (John 17:3; 1 John 2:3-4) Walking in the truth is far more than mere head knowledge of who, what, where, why and how of things. This knowledge will lead to what Luke called the early Christians, “the Way.” (Acts 9:2) This taking in knowledge of the Father and the Son will be life altering, to the point where it becomes a Way of life.
Certainly, what is true of our human parents would be even more accurate of our heavenly Father as well. God finds great joy, satisfaction and happiness when imperfect humans choose to imitate his qualities and attributes over their fleshly desires, which lean toward wrongdoing, and over the god of this system of things, Satan the Devil. (Gen. 1:26-27; Pro. 23:24-25) As the Creator and Designer of us, ‘he teaches us what is best for us, leads us in the way you should go.’ (Isa. 48:17) It is a privilege to work with hundreds of millions of others that want to walk in the truth, to be used in the Great Commission, helping millions more to move from death to life. – Matthew 28:19-20; John 5:24.
We also bring glory to God when we walk in the truth. His sovereignty, the rightfulness of his rulership was challenged by Satan, and our choosing to walk with him, means we support him as ruler. (Gen. 3:1-4; Rev. 12:9) Part of Satan’s challenge was that created persons would only love him for what they can get out of him, if opposition to their loyalty arises, they will abandon him. (Job 1:6-12) Thus, our continuously, steadfastly walking in the truth, evidence that lie, because we refuse to compromise what is right for some immediate gratification. (Pro. 27:11) For those who have chosen not to walk in the truth, but have followed the path of independence, like Adam and Eve, they unwittingly align themselves with Satan. He is the “father of the lie,” “who deceives the whole world,” as he is “the god of this age [and] has blinded the minds of the unbelievers.” (Jn. 8:44; Rev. 12:9; 2 Cor. 4:4) These have a closed heart and mind and are unable to see the path of truth. May we maintain the mindset of the Psalmist and the prophet Samuel,
Psalm 25:4-5 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
4 4 Make me to know your ways, O Jehovah;
teach me your paths.
5 Lead me in your truth and teach me,
for you are the God of my salvation;
for you I wait all the day long.
1 Samuel 12:21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
21 You must not turn aside, for then you would go after futile things which cannot profit or deliver, because they are futile. 24 Only fear Jehovah, and serve him faithfully with all your heart, for see what great things he has done for you.
James 4:8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
8 Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded.
If we draw close to God in our worship, as well as our commitment to him, he, in turn, will draw close to us. Many, who shy away from putting the effort into buying out the time to get to know God better, which requires deepening our knowledge of him in personal Bible study, will say that head knowledge will get us nowhere. Well, yes that is true to an extent. However, a deeper knowledge of God’s power, love, wisdom, and justice, among other outstanding attributes, will give us guidance for our godly life, meaning the head knowledge as some like to call it, will get down to our heart, the seat of motivation.
“‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that Mature Faith will result, but shallow study guarantees that immaturity continues.” – Dr. Lee M. Fields.
The hands were sometimes used to represent the actions of the person himself in his life of worship. For us today, this means that we set aside any activities in our lives that would make us impure in the eyes of God. This means that we have to purify our hearts, i.e., the inner person, which is evidenced in our daily life, the outer person.
We can be double-minded, doubting, wavering persons when we live as the world does, because we would not have faith that, what the Word of God promises, is going to come true. In other words, we are playing both sides of the fence, just in case. We have one foot in the world of humankind alienated from God, and the other in Christ.
Deepening Our Knowledge
It only stands to reason that our first task is to draw close to God by getting to ‘know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom he has sent.’ (John 17:3) We do know that he has already reached out to us through his Word the Bible, a revelation about him, and his will and purposes for his creation. One way that we can grasp his instruction for us is by studying his Word. Even the Apostle Peter found the letters of the Apostle Paul to be difficult to understand.
2 Peter 3:16 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
16 as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.
Both Peter and Paul have spoken to the early Christians about what it means to live a Christian life in these difficult times. These parts of Peter and Paul’s letters are not too difficult to understand. However, some aspects of the letters were deeper and more difficult to comprehend, which would be even more so with us today, as we are 2,000 years removed from that time, culture and language. Getting back to the point of what Peter was talking about, that is false teachers who were distorting and twisting Paul’s teachings that were easy to understand, which dealt with a Christian lifestyle. We can see that they were not too inclined to let the words of Paul or any apostle for that matter tell them that their living in sin was wrong. Therefore, if some can distort and twist those messages of God that are easy to understand, how much more so would that apply to the deeper things of God?
God has freely given us his precious truths within the Bible. As we begin our study of Scripture, we will take in knowledge of him, his name, his qualities, his personality, as well as why he created us, why we are here, what his purposes are for us, and the rest of his creation. We will discover the fall, the imperfect human condition, as a result, why he has permitted the pain and suffering, old age and death. We will discover that there is the hope of a resurrection after death. Most importantly, we will discover his will for us. In other words, how we like Enoch, Noah, Abraham and Moses, can walk with God, to be pleasing in his eyes. In the course of our study, we will find that he expects us to obey his Word, a task that is not burdensome; but rather beneficial when we apply them in a balanced manner.
The truths of Scripture that we are going to embark on will enable the interested ones to make life-altering changes. (Heb. 4:12) Before we ever discovered the Word of God, we were walking “according to the course of this world, according to the ruler of the authority of the air, the spirit now working in the sons of disobedience.” (Eph. 2:2) Now that we have the Word of God in our hands, we can embark on a different path altogether. We will be able to “live in a manner worthy of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good deed and increasing in the knowledge of God.” (Colossians 1:10) This chapter is about the basics of our relationship with God, the first steps of growing our unbreakable friendship. As Jesus said, “blessed are those who hear the word of God and observe it.” – Luke 11:28, NASB.
As we study the Word of God, taking in the correct understanding of what the writer meant by the words he used, we begin to see the true human experience from the fall of Adam up until now, and how our lives are involved in the issues before us. We soon realize the truth behind Jeremiah’s words, “I know, O Jehovah, that the way of man is not in himself, that it is not in man who walks to direct his steps.” (Jer. 10:23) Yes, we were not designed to walk on our own, as we were designed under the umbrella of Jehovah’s sovereignty.
Once we truly appreciate those words from Jeremiah, we will be more deeply moved to discover the guidance for us from Scripture. If we are to become a well-grounded Christian, we must,
- we must obtain a good, deep knowledge of Bible truth (1 Tim. 2:3-4),
- put faith in the things you have learned (Heb. 11:6),
- repent of your sins (Acts 17:30-31), and
- turn around in your course of life. (Acts 3:19);
- Then your love for God should move you to dedicate yourself to him. (Matt. 16:24; 22:37; Heb. 10:7)
Each of us must give of ourselves freely, as our heart determines because God does not want us giving unwillingly or under obligation, for God loves a person who gives out of their inner joy. In addition, God would not be pleased if anyone chose to dedicate themselves to him out of some fleeting, momentary, or temporary emotionalism. Being baptized is like a wedding ceremony. It is an outward display of one’s dedication and commitment, which they have already made. We could also ask, would any Christian marriage counselor or a pastor recommend that a person marries someone that they just met that evening, last week, even last month? No, either of these professionals, who are aware that the divorce rate is over 50 percent for Christian marriages, would highly recommend a lengthy engagement period, to get to know one another better, and not base things on emotionalism. In fact, they would also likely recommend that the couple goes through some form of premarital counseling, gaining an education of the reality of marriage. Should we expect any less in our commitment to God? When a person first shows interest in the Bible, there should be a period of getting to know, as well as his or her discovering the foundation of biblical truths. This period should be for at least six months to a year, and involve,
- going to the weekly services regularly,
- studying with the pastor or another mature congregation member,
- carrying on their own personal study,
- coming to accept the Bible as the inspired, authoritative and inerrant Word of God,
- having a fundamental knowledge of the doctrines of the Bible (to the point of being able to give reasons that they believe them to be true and are able to defend them),
- knowing what the Bible says about morality,
- altering themselves to the point of putting on of the new personality,
- living a Christian life for this period of time,
- nor have they been practicing any willfully or habitually sin for some time and must truly desire to be a follower of Christ.
Again, we must be a disciple to the level of the above criteria before being a baptized accepted member of a denomination. If our denomination is not expecting something similarly of a new one; then, we may want to rethink our denomination. Even if we are simply transferring from one denomination to another, our new denomination will need to see a lengthy evident demonstration that we are truly a disciple and have made the decision to dedicate our life to God. Jesus commanded that we “go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them” and “teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.” (Matthew 28:19-20) After becoming aware of what is involved and thinking wisely on the matter, we will want to dedicate our lives to God.
After baptism, the relationship between God and us should continue to deepen throughout our lives, as we mature in the faith. We will have to make efforts on our part to draw closer, desiring to maintain and strengthen our relationship with the Almighty. Jehovah God will see and value our efforts to live a life that is reflective of his will and purposes, as well as our heartfelt desire to draw ever closer to him.
Walking in Jesus’ Footsteps
1 Peter 2:21 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
21 For to this you were called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you should follow in his footsteps,
As most are aware, Jesus Christ was perfect, and we are not, so we are unable to walk faultlessly in Jesus footsteps. However, we are given allowance by God for our imperfections. (Ps 103:4) Let us take a moment to look at some aspects of Jesus life that we can strive to imitate.
Jesus was very familiar with the Word of God, the Hebrew Scriptures that we call the Old Testament. He quoted from it over 120 times in about three hours of dialogue that we have in the four Gospels. (Luke 4:4, 8) It is true that the Jewish religious leaders and even Satan quoted from the Scriptures as well. Jesus, unlike them, applied the Scriptures appropriately, while the Jewish religious leaders and Satan twisted the Scriptures to suit their selfish ends. Jesus not only knew the legal aspect of the Law but the spirit of it as well. We too can imitate Jesus, by buying out the time to understand the Scriptures correctly, and then using them properly, as well as applying them in our lives.
In addition, to his having a correct mental grasp of Scripture, he also shared it with all who would listen. He was known as the “teacher.” (Matthew 12:38) Jesus took his Good News everywhere, such as the temple area, in synagogues, in cities, and in the rural area. (Mark 1:39; Luke 8:1; John 18:20) Moreover, when he taught others, he did so with compassion, empathetic understanding, and kindness, expressing love for the ones whom he helped. (Matthew 4:23) We too can imitate this by sharing the good news with relatives, coworkers, in the market, on the phone, the internet, door to door in our neighborhood, and in all parts of our lives.
Jesus felt that all who sought to be disciples were his spiritual family, brothers, sisters, and so on. (Matt. 12:47-50) This does not mean that Jesus set aside his real physical family; it says that his spiritual brothers and sisters were just as important. (John 19:25-27) We too can invest in deep friendships with our spiritual brothers and sisters, growing to love them deeply enough that we would give our lives for them. – 1 Peter 4:8
Jesus obeyed the Father, doing his will, not his own. This was an active way of evidencing his love for the Father. Jesus said to them, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work.” (John 4:34, ESV) He also said, “And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.” (John 8:29) It is not about our will or our desires; it is about the will of the Father. Many times, when asked what Christian living is supposed to be like, a Christian will answer, “I feel, I think, I believe,” and so on. Jesus said the one who is in good standing with the Father is “the one who does the will of my Father. (Matt 7:21) the Apostle John put it this way,
1 John 2:15-17 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
15 Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. 16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world. 17 The world is passing away, and its lusts; but the one who does the will of God remains forever.
Jesus also prayed on every occasion. He prayed the day he was baptized. (Luke 3:21) He prayed throughout the entire night when he had to make the monumental decision of who the 12 apostles would be. (Luke 6:12, 13) Jesus also taught his disciple how to pray, as well as what was important to cover in prayer. (Luke 11:1-4) Even the night before his impending death, he chose to take time out to pray for his disciple’s wellbeing. (John 17:1-26) We too can imitate Jesus, by making prayer an important part of our life, by praying on all sorts of occasions.
1 John 5:14-15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
14 And this is the confidence that we have before him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. 15 And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have the requests which we have asked from him.
A Life Pleasing to God
We are in such awe as we watch any young baby, pull himself or herself to their feet and begin to walk. They are falling more than they are walking, and are unsteady for some time. However, they never give up. They continue to fight their way to their feet hundreds of time, practicing and determination, until one day, they are unstoppable. Our walking with God, in the beginning, takes much practicing and determination on our part, as we will stumble many times, but we must get back up without the slightest hesitation, and soon, with enough putting the Word of God into practice, we will be unstoppable. If we give our whole soul, mind, and strength, it will be reciprocated, as we walk with God. (Isaiah 40:29-31)
1 Thessalonians 4:1 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
4 Finally, then, brothers, we ask and urge you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, just as you are doing, that you do so more and more.
1 Timothy 3:15 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
15 but in case I am delayed, I am writing so that you will know how one ought to conduct himself in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and support of the truth.
It is for this very reason that those who are taking the lead in the Christian congregation, are to ‘do their best to present himself to God as one approved, a workman who does not need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth,’ even more so than the congregation themselves. (2 Tim. 2:15) These church leaders, are to be “qualified to teach, showing restraint when wronged, 25 instructing his opponents with gentleness, if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading to accurate knowledge of the truth, and they may come to their senses and escape from the snare of the devil, having been held captive by him to do his will.” (2 Tim. 2:25-26) For the Christian congregation to be “a pillar and support of the truth,” the members, in their conduct, must evidence that truth in their daily lives. (Eph. 5:8-10) On this Max Anders writes, “It would be a gross inconsistency for a Christian to participate in the flagrant sins of non-Christians. The Ephesian Christians were once just like those who are disobedient. But no longer! Rather than doing deeds of immorality, impurity, and greed, they should do deeds of goodness, righteousness, and truth. Christians are no longer darkness, but children of light. Therefore, we should do deeds of light, not darkness. Only as you walk in God’s light can you please him.”
Christians must “stand firm, therefore, with your loins girded about with truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness.” (Eph. 6:14) Anders writes, “After instructions to put on the full armor of God and the promise of the power of God in victory over the devil, Paul specifically describes the various pieces of armor. The belt of truth pictures the large leather belt the Roman soldier wore. It held other weapons and kept his outer garments in place. To put on the belt of truth can be understood as accepting the truth of the Bible and choosing to follow it with integrity.” For the church to be “a pillar and support of the truth,” they must be concerned about congregational purity. The apostle Paul writes,
1 Corinthians 5:6-8 Updated American Standard Version (UASV)
8 Your boasting is not good. Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump? 7 Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. 8 So then, let us celebrate the feast, not with the old leaven or with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
Richard L. Pratt writes, “The church is to be a new batch of dough without infectious impurity. As Paul pointed out, the church really is a pure, wholesome community of believers because it exists in Christ. Paul’s command might be summarized, ‘You are pure, so start acting like it.’ … Paul urged the Corinthians to remember that they had to remove the old leaven of immorality from their church because they lived in the age of Christ’s Passover sacrifice. In this sense, the church is to keep the Festival of Passover every day without the old leaven of malice and wickedness. All evil should be resisted and removed whenever possible so the people of God may metaphorically eat bread without leaven. Their lives are to consist of sincerity and truth. Immorality was unacceptable in the church because it introduced a corrupting influence among the people of God.
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There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …
THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …
A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …
This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …
This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …
How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …
Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …
…IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD? Is Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …
If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …
Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …
Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …
APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …
Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …
MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …
…THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …
The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …
…The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …
EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …
Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …
The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …
Translation and Textual Criticism
…THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.
There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …
…THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …
Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …
A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …
…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …
The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …
Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …
Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …
…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …
Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …
…church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy Churches: A Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …
…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …
…Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …
What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …
What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …
Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …
Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …
The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …
What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …
Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …
Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …
…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …
Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …
There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to …
When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …
“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.
 B.C.E. means “before the Common Era,” which is more accurate than B.C. (“before Christ”). C.E. denotes “Common Era,” often called A.D., for anno Domini, meaning “in the year of our Lord.”
 Andreas J. Köstenberger, John, Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2004), 529.
 Andreas J. Köstenberger, John, Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2004).
 William Hendriksen and Simon J. Kistemaker, Exposition of the Gospel According to John, vol. 2, New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1953–2001), 410.
 Kirk Cameron and Ray Comfort, The School of Biblical Evangelism: 101 Lessons: How to Share Your Faith Simply, Effectively, Biblically—the Way Jesus Did (Gainesville, FL: Bridge-Logos Publishers, 2004), 492.
 Ibid., 492–493.
 Norman L. Geisler, Systematic Theology, Volume One: Introduction, Bible (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 2002), 120–121.
 Ibid., 121.
 Ibid., 122.
 Ibid., 122.
 Ibid., 123.
 Ibid., 124.
 See Ex. 18:21; 34:6; Deut. 13:14; 17:4; 22:20; Josh. 2:12; 2 Ch. 18:15; 31:20; Neh. 7:2; 9:33; Esth. 9:30; Ps 15:2; Eccl. 12:10; Jer. 9:5
 LN Louw-Nida Greek-English Lexicon
 James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997).
 See Mark 5:33; 12:32; Lu 4:25; John 3:21; Rom. 2:8; 1 Cor. 13:6; Php 1:18; 2 Thess. 2:10, 12; 1 John 1:6, 8; 2:4, 21
 William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 42.
 Timothy Friberg, Barbara Friberg, and Neva F. Miller, Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament, Baker’s Greek New Testament Library (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000), 42–43.
 Compare God’s rebuke of Job by describing his sovereignty over all creation in Job 38–39; cf. Ps 135:7.
 F. B. Huey, Jeremiah, Lamentations, vol. 16, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1993), 127.
 Or natural sexual relations; Lit natural use
 ἀτιμίας is a genitive of quality. πάθη ἀτιμίας means “passions that bring dishonor.” In the NT πάθος is always used in a bad sense. Here it refers to unnatural lust.
 H. Rhys says that Aristophanes found homosexuality “sufficiently widespread in Athens to say in one of his comedies that the audience contained a clear majority of sodomites” (The Epistle to the Romans [New York: Macmillan, 1961], 26).
 W. Barclay, The Letter to the Romans (Edinburgh: St. Andrews, 1957), 32. A. M. Hunter quotes Suetonius’s remark that Julius Caesar was “every woman’s man and every man’s woman” (The Epistle to the Romans, TBC [London: SCM, 1955], 33). Cf. Plato’s Symposium and Plutarch’s Lycurgus on homosexuality in ancient times.
 Barrett, Romans, 39.
 Cf. also Gen 19:1–10; 1 Cor 6:9; 1 Tim 1:9–10; Jude 7.
 The term is μαλακοί, lit., “soft ones,” commonly explained as males who let themselves be sexually used as women.
 J. Boswell understands Paul as viewing homosexual acts as peculiar, but not as “morally reprehensible” (Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980], 112). See the insightful response by R. B. Hays, “Relations Natural and Unnatural: A Response to John Boswell’s Exegesis of Romans 1,” JRE 14 (1986): 184–215.
 P. Achtemeier, Romans (Atlanta: John Knox, 1985), 41.
 P. Stuhlmacher, Paul’s Letter to the Romans, trans. S. J. Hafemann [Louisville: Westminster, 1994], 37.
 ἐκκαίω means “to set on fire.” In the passive it means “to be consumed by fire.” Cf. Paul’s use of πυροῦσθαι (“to burn”) in 1 Cor 7:9.
 GAGNT 2:460.
 Robert H. Mounce, Romans, vol. 27, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1995), 82–84.
 Larry Richards and Lawrence O. Richards, The Teacher’s Commentary (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1987), 886.
 Norman L. Geisler, Systematic Theology, Volume Four: Church, Last Things (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 2005), 531.
 Wayne Detzler, Living Words in Philippians (England: Evangelical Press, 1984), 121.
 Lit pedagogue; Gr paidagogos. The tutor in Bible times was not the teacher but rather a guardian who led the student to the teacher.
 Or days
 Or substance
 6:12: “Fight the good fight of the faith; take hold of the eternal life to which you were called, and confessed the good confession in the presence of many witnesses.”
 Thomas D. Lea and Hayne P. Griffin, 1, 2 Timothy, Titus, vol. 34, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1992), 176.
 Kenneth O. Gangel, John, vol. 4, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 265.
 Andreas J. Köstenberger, John, Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2004), 184.
 The grammatical construction of pisteuo “believe” followed by eis “into” plus the accusative causing a different shade of meaning, having faith into Jesus.
 Johannes P. Louw and Eugene Albert Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains (New York: United Bible Societies, 1996), 375.
 Kenneth O. Gangel, John, vol. 4, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 61.
 Or breath
 Brent Calloway, THE BOOK OF JAMES Volume 17, CPH Christian Living Commentary (Cambridge: Christian Publishing House, 2015), 70-1.
 Lit he will tabernacle
 Some mss peoples
 One early ms and be their God
 I.e., secret plan
 Or kind intention
 Lit upon
 I.e. the Messiah
 Resurrection Hope – The Bible Viewpoint
 Lit executed with the ax
 Jesus will renew of all things, i.e., conditions on earth, making them similar to those that existed in the Garden of Eden but earth wide, namely, a paradise earth that the Father had initially intended.
 Max Anders, Galatians-Colossians, vol. 8, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999), 93.
 It is unwise to speak of the written Word of God as if it were of human origin, saying ‘OT authors express the belief,’ when what was written is the meaning and message of what God wanted to convey by means of the human author.
 Create anew does not mean a complete destruction followed by a re-creation, but instead a renewal of the present universe.
 From the Greek porneia, “to engage in sexual immorality of any kind, often with the implication of prostitution—‘to engage in illicit sex, to commit fornication, sexual immorality, fornication, prostitution.’”―GELNTBSD.
 Two early MSS read a clean heart
 Roger M. Raymer, “1 Peter,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 844.
 Zane C. Hodges, “2 John,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 906.
 25:4, 5 The noun and verb metaphors speak of direction for life’s pathways (cf. the thrust of Ps. 1).―MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 21440-21441). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 31:5 Into Your hand. This is applied to both the lesser David and the greater David (Luke 23:46); here, it involves the common denominator of trust. This is a metaphor depicting God’s power and control (cf. v. 15a; contrast vv. 8, 15b).―MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 21587-21589). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 Greek epignosis, accurate or full knowledge
 who were of the Way. This description of Christianity, derived from Jesus’ description of Himself (John 14:6), appears several times in Acts (19:9, 23; 22:4; 24:14, 22). This is an appropriate title because Christianity is the way of God (18:26), the way into the Holy Place (Heb. 10:19, 20), and the way of truth (John 14:6; 2 Pet. 2:2).―MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 49531-49533). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 Cleanse your hands. The OT priests had to ceremonially wash their hands before approaching God (Ex. 30:19–21), and sinners (a term used only for unbelievers; see note on 5:20 ) who would approach Him must recognize and confess their sin. purify your hearts. Cleansing the hands symbolizes external behavior; this phrase refers to the inner thoughts, motives, and desires of the heart (Ps. 24:3, 4; Jer. 4:4; Ezek. 18:31; 36:25, 26; 1 Tim. 1:5; 2 Tim. 2:22; 1 Pet. 1:22).―MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Location 63412). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 person, who starts going to church and is struggling to overcome their addictive smoking habit for example, should not be baptized until he or she has overcome it for several months, with no relapses. I see willful as one who does something knowingly and willingly (like in secrecy). Smoking is a terrible addiction, and most, who are trying to quit, and relapse, are not willful.
 The faith that says but does not do is really barren unbelief (cf. v. 20). Jesus is not suggesting that works merit salvation but that true faith will not fail to produce the fruit of good works. This point is also precisely the point of James 1:22–25; 2:26.―MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Bible Commentary (Kindle Locations 39111-39113). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition.
 Lit toward
 “I am writing” is not in the Greek text, but is an understood repetition from the previous clause
 Or accurately handling the word of truth; correctly teaching the word of truth
 Epignosis is a strengthened or intensified form of gnosis (epi, meaning “additional”), meaning, “true,” “real,” “full,” “complete” or “accurate,” depending upon the context. Paul and Peter alone use epignosis.
 Max Anders, Galatians-Colossians, vol. 8, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999), 171.
 (An idiom, literally ‘to gird up the loins’) to cause oneself to be in a state of readiness–‘to get ready, to prepare oneself.’–GELNTBSD
 Max Anders, Galatians-Colossians, vol. 8, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999), 190–191.
 Richard L. Pratt Jr, I & II Corinthians, vol. 7, Holman New Testament Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 76.