Edward D. Andrews
EDWARD D. ANDREWS (AS in Criminal Justice, BS in Religion, MA in Biblical Studies, and MDiv in Theology) is CEO and President of Christian Publishing House. He has authored ninety-two books. Andrews is the Chief Translator of the Updated American Standard Version (UASV).

“To be sure, of all the hundreds of thousands of textual changes found among our manuscripts, most of them are completely insignificant, immaterial, of no real importance for anything other than showing that scribes could not spell or keep focused any better than the rest of us.” Misquoting Jesus (p. 207)

From this section of Ehrman’s book, we get the impression that he too agrees that ‘most of the hundreds of thousands of textual changes are completely insignificant,’ and are able to be restored. In other words, textual scholarship has no problem discerning what the correct reading is, and what is not the correct reading. In another place in Misquoting Jesus, Ehrman uses another strong adjective to describe the level of agreement among textual scholars being able to restore the text where scribes had made intentional changes.

In a remarkable number of instances—most of them, actually—scholars by and large agree. It is perhaps useful for us here to consider an array of the kinds of intentional changes one finds among our manuscripts, as these can show us the reasons scribes had for making alterations. Misquoting Jesus (p. 94)

Here again, we offer an example, where we would agree with Ehrman’s assessment. Most textual scholars agree on the vast majority of intentional and unintentional changes. If we search throughout his book and find these isolated comments, it seems that one picture of Ehrman emerges. One that places him in the same camp with modern-day textual scholarship that believes the restoration of the original New Testament is quite possible. Let us investigate another quoted portion.

Moreover, in the early centuries of the church, some locales had better scribes than others. Modern scholars have come to recognize that the scribes in Alexandria—which was a major intellectual center in the ancient world—were particularly scrupulous, even in these early centuries, and that there, in Alexandria, a very pure form of the text of the early Christian writings was preserved, decade after decade, by dedicated and relatively skilled Christian scribes. Misquoting Jesus (p. 72)


Here again, Ehrman is right on the mark with modern textual scholarship, in that the Alexandrian scribes produces a very pure form of text, because they viewed literature in a whole other way, as opposed to the rest of the Roman Empire. However, this does not negate that early Christianity as a whole respected the books they possessed and viewed them as Scripture on par with the Old Testament. Moreover, the modern scholarship also believes that if other early manuscripts from throughout the Roman Empire would have survived, they would have differed very little from the Alexandrian papyri. Textual scholar Philip W. Comfort writes, “The early papyrus manuscripts represent not only the Egyptian New Testament text but also the text of the entire early church.” (P. W. Comfort 1992, 34) Kurt Aland of the Nestle-Aland critical text also affirms this position.

When did the church begin to use professional scribes to copy its texts? There are good reasons for thinking that this happened sometime near the beginning of the fourth century. Misquoting Jesus (p. 72)

However, we find a conflicting statement on the very same page. We had just established the pure quality of the Alexandrian manuscripts “in the early centuries of the church,” and now Ehrman is saying that the church did not begin to use professional scribes until the fourth-century. I am certain that he would agree that the following were done by a professional scribe: P4,64,67, P30, P39, P46, P66, P75, P77 + P103, P95, P104.

The scribes—whether non-professional scribes in the early centuries or professional scribes of the Middle Ages—were intent on “conserving” the textual tradition they were passing on. Their ultimate concern was not to modify the tradition, but to preserve it for themselves and for those who would follow them. Most scribes, no doubt, tried to do a faithful job in making sure that the text they reproduced was the same text they inherited. Misquoting Jesus (p. 177)


Here again, we agree. One could almost get whiplash in trying to get a clear picture of Ehrman’s trustworthy or not trustworthy. As soon as you feel he is suggesting that we can get back to something, or that something is trustworthy, or that the most of something is easily resolved, or that most textual scholars agree, you get just the opposite view in other places in Misquoting Jesus. At times, this takes place on the same page. With no disrespect intended, it is as though he has two personalities that are at odds with each other: his textual scholarship personality versus his liberal scholarship personality. Of the 7,956 verses and 138,020 words in the critical Greek text, only one percent is significant to the point that they affect the text as to meaning. However, the evidence to make a textual decision leans in one direction, and once again, we have no problem restoring the original.

Canonical Gospels and Apocryphal Gospels

Four such Gospels became most widely used—those of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John in the New Testament—but many others were written. We still have some of the others: for example, Gospels allegedly by Jesus’s disciple Philip, his brother Judas Thomas, and his female companion Mary Magdalene. Other Gospels, including some of the very earliest, have been lost. We know this, for example, from the Gospel of Luke, whose author indicates that in writing his account he consulted “many” predecessors (Luke 1:1), which obviously no longer survive. One of these earlier accounts may have been the source that scholars have designated Q, which was probably a written account, principally of Jesus’s sayings, used by both Luke and Matthew for many of their distinctive teachings of Jesus (e.g., the Lord’s Prayer and the Beatitudes). Misquoting Jesus (p. 24)

I dealt with the Q document in chapter five, so there is no reason to take it up again here. However, I am going to examine the worth of Apocryphal writings in comparison to the Canonical[1] writings because Ehrman appears to equate them equally. What should trouble the reader is the scholarship of a person that equates the Apocryphal Gospels on the same level as our four canonical Gospels. Commenting on such post-apostolic Apocryphal writings, Bible scholar, Norman L. Geisler states:

During the first few centuries, numerous books of a fanciful and heretical nature arose that are neither genuine nor valuable as a whole. Eusebius of Caesarea called these “totally absurd and impious.” Virtually no orthodox Father, canon, or council considered these books canonical and, so far as the church is concerned, they are primarily of historical value, indicating the heretical teaching of gnostic, docetic, and ascetic groups, as well as the exaggerated fancy of religious lore in the early church. At best, these books were revered by some of the cults and referred to by some of the orthodox Fathers, but they were never considered canonical by the mainstream of Christianity.[2]


When Were the Canonical Gospels Written and by Whom?

Many factors support that the Gospel of Matthew was written sometime between 50-55 C.E. It was written before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. (Matt 24:1-2, 15; 27:53) The early church supports that Matthew was the first Gospel to have been penned in Hebrew and shortly thereafter translated into Greek. There being closer to the date certainly gives them the better position to know. Since most date Luke to about 60 C.E., and he speaks of other Gospels, this would put Matthew and Mark prior to this date. Since Matthew is considered earliest, this would mean Mark, who had the help of Peter, was second, likely between 55-60 C.E. John wrote his Gospel after his arrival back from banishment on the island of Patmos. (Rev. 1:9) The Roman emperor Nerva, 96-98 C.E., returned many who had been banished at the close of the reign of his predecessor, Domitian. After penning his Gospel in about 98 C.E., John is believed to have died at Ephesus in the third year of Emperor Trajan, 100 C.E.

Those who had spent time with Jesus while he was alive were around for his death and resurrection were still living then; they could confirm the Gospel accounts. They could also definitely make known any inaccuracies as well. Professor F. F. Bruce observes,

One of the strong points in the original apostolic preaching is the confident appeal to the knowledge of the hearers; they not only said, ‘We are witnesses of these things,’ but also, ‘As you yourselves also know’ (Acts 2:22). (Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are they Reliable? 1981, 43)

What do we know about the writers of the canonical New Testament? Some of the apostles were moved to pen books, and it was they who had traveled with Jesus in his three and a half year ministry. Matthew, who penned what is considered to be the first Gospel, was an apostle. James and Jude penned a letter each and were Jesus’ half-brothers, both being doubters during Jesus’ ministry and death. These two and Mark, who penned one of the Gospels, were likely present on the day of Pentecost in 33 C.E., at the birth of the Christian congregation. Luke, who penned a Gospel and the book of Acts of Apostles was a traveling companion of Paul and was closely involved with the older men in Jerusalem. Peter was an apostle and penned two letters. Jesus selected Paul personally, after he was visited by him on the road to Damascus, and penned 14 books. John was an apostle, the beloved of Jesus, who penned one Gospel, three letters, and the book of Revelation.—1 Corinthians 15:1-7; Acts 15:2, 6, 12-14, 22; Galatians 2:7-10.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM - Beyond the Basics REASONABLE FAITH how-to-study-your-bible1 How to Interpret the Bible-1

Mathew. There is both internal and external evidence that the Gospel bearing the name Matthew was, in fact, written by Matthew even though the title “According to Matthew” was added in the second century. There are many references to money throughout this Gospel, which one would expect from a tax collector. Moreover, the humility of multiple references to his being a tax collector. His ability as a record keeper is borne out in his recording the long discourses of Jesus. That Matthew is the author of this Gospel is also established by the church Fathers as far back as Papias of Hierapolis (written works published about 130-140 C.E.), also by Justin Martyr, by Hegesippus, Irenæus, Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus, Clement, Tertullian, and Origen.

Mark. Mark had a history with many of the major people in the birth of Christianity. He was a cousin of Barnabas and traveled with the missionaries. His mother, Mary’s home, was used as a place of worship. He was the young man that fled the night of Jesus’ betrayal, meaning he was a follower of Christ before Jesus’ execution. He was a friend of the Apostle Peter. The person who penned the Gospel entitled Mark was familiar with the geography of the land and Jerusalem, knew Aramaic, and understood Jewish traditions and customs, familiarity with James, Peter and John. Most agree that Mark penned the letter, but it was mainly through the recounting of Peter. Some of Peter’s characteristics are to be seen in Mark’s style, which is impetuous, living, energetic, dynamic, and expressive. It seems Mark (Peter) can scarcely relate events fast enough. For example, the word “immediately” or “at once” occurs 23 times in this short Gospel, transporting the story along in intense style. It was Peter who referred to Mark as “my son.” (1 Pet. 5:13) Again, Papias attributed the Gospel to him along with many other early church Fathers (Irenaeus, Clement of Alexander, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Tertullian, Origen, Jerome, and Eusebius).

Luke. Luke was a traveling companion of the Apostle Paul, as he uses the first person in parts of Acts. (16:10, 17; 20:6; 27:1) Both Timothy and Mark are referred to in the third person. (20:5) The use of medical terms fits Luke, as he is a physician. Luke uses more than 300 medical terms or words to which he gives a medical meaning.[3] The earliest Gospel manuscripts bear the name Luke. Again, the early church Fathers supported him as the author, such as Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement, Origen, Gregory of Nasianzus, Jerome, and Eusebius. The Muratorian Fragment (c. 170 C.E.) attributes the Gospel to Luke.

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus Christ how-to-study-your-bible1 APOLOGETICS

John. In this final Gospel, the writer is referred to as the “disciple whom Jesus loved,” (20:17) this and comparable expressions being used numerous times in the record, though the name of the apostle John is not ever mentioned. Jesus is here quoted as saying about him: “If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you?” (John 21:20, 22) This certainly fit the historical facts, because John lived a life that is decades beyond the others. He was a follower of John the Baptist (1:35-40), and one of the first to follow Jesus (1:40). He was one of the three disciples (James, Peter, and John) that were pulled aside by Jesus at times, into an inner circle (Matt 17:1). The author was a Jew, who had a good knowledge of the customs, traditions, and the Old Testament. He knew the geography and topography of the land. He was an eyewitness to persons, time, numbers, places, and other details. (21:24) What is known as P52, the John Ryland’s papyrus fragment, dating to between 110-125 C.E., evidence that John was written in the first-century. Also, Irenaeus of Lyons (b. 120-140 – d. 202 C.E.), knew Polycarp (69-155 C.E.), who had studied under John the Apostle. The Muratorian Fragment (c. 170 C.E.), Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Eusebius attribute the Gospel to John.

Who Selected the Books to go into the Canon?

Some liberal scholars have claimed that the canon of the Gospels was chosen centuries after the fact by the church that was an established power in the direction of Emperor Constantine. Nevertheless, the facts show otherwise.

For example, note what Professor of Church History Oskar Skarsaune states: “Which writings that were to be included in the New Testament, and which were not, was never decided upon by any church council or by any single person . . . The criteria were quite open and very sensible: Writings from the first century C.E. that were regarded as written by apostles or by their fellow workers were regarded as reliable. Other writings, letters, or ‘gospels’ that were written later were not included . . . This process was essentially completed a long time before Constantine and a long time before his church of power had been established. It was the church of martyrs, not the church of power; that gave us the New Testament.”

Carl F. H. Henry writes,

Jesus altered the prevailing Jewish view of Scripture in several ways: (1) he subjected the authority of tradition to the superior and normative authority of the Old Testament; (2) he emphasized that he himself fulfills the messianic promise of the inspired writings; (3) he claimed for himself an authority not below that of the Old Testament and definitively expounded the inner significance of the Law; (4) he inaugurated the new covenant escalating the Holy Spirit’s moral power as an internal reality; (5) he committed his apostles to the enlargement and completion of the Old Testament canon through their proclamation of the Spirit-given interpretation of his life and work. At the same time he identified himself wholly with the revelational authority of Moses and the prophets—that is, with the Old Testament as an inspired literary canon insisting that Scripture has sacred, authoritative and permanent validity, and that the revealed truth of God is conveyed in its teachings.[4]

Norman L. Geisler writes,

First, a book is not the Word of God because it is accepted by the people of God. Rather, it was accepted by the people of God because it is the Word of God. That is, God gives the book its divine authority, not the people of God. They merely recognize the divine authority which God gives to it. Further, this view shifts the “locus of authority” from God to man, from the divine to the human. Thus, the divine authority of Scripture is determined by man. Finally, the final acceptance of a book by the church of God often did not come for many generations, even centuries.[5]

J. I. Packer writes,

The Church no more gave us the New Testament canon than Sir Isaac Newton gave us the force of gravity. God gave us gravity, by His work of creation, and similarly He gave us the New Testament canon, by inspiring the individual books that make it up.[6]

Edward J. Young writes,

When the Word of God was written it became Scripture and, inasmuch as it had been spoken by God, possessed absolute authority. Since it was the Word of God, it was canonical. That which determines the canonicity of a book, therefore, is the fact that the book is inspired by God. Hence a distinction is properly made between the authority which the Old Testament possesses as divinely inspired, and the recognition of that authority on the part of Israel.[7]

1 Corinthians 12:4, 10 English Standard Version (ESV)

 4 Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; 10 to another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, to another the ability to distinguish between spirits, to another various kind of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues.

According to Paul, one of the gifts of the “Spirit” was the ability “to distinguish between spirits.” Therefore, just like those that were given the superhuman ability to speak in tongues, or inspired to pen Scripture, these were given the ability to discern inspired writings from uninspired writings. Therefore, we can be most confident that the 66 books that are found in our Bibles were recognized as inspired.

It is true that the canon was mentioned in the writings of second and third-century writers. However, as the above Bible scholars testify, these church Fathers did not determine canonicity, they merely acknowledge what God has already established through representatives there were gifted by the “Spirit.”

What Are the Differences Between Apocryphal and the Canonical?

Internal evidence sanctions the clear separation that was made between the canonical writings and writings that were false or uninspired. The Apocryphal writings are substandard and often imaginary and juvenile. They are often erroneous. Note what the following scholars have to say about the noncanonical books:

M. R. James writes,

It will be very quickly seen that there is no question of any one’s having excluded them from the New Testament: they have done that for themselves.[8]

G. Milligan writes,

We have only to compare our New Testament books as a whole with other literature of the kind to realize how wide is the gulf which separates them from it. The uncanonical gospels, it is often said, are in reality the best evidence for the canonical.[9]

N. R. Lightfoot writes,

Anyone who doubts about the New Testament Canon should take the time to read some of the New Testament Apocrypha. Here are a few examples of what one may find: (1) Infancy Story of Thomas. When a child bumps his [Jesus’] shoulder, Jesus strikes him dead. (2) Gospel of Peter. Three men come out of Jesus’ tomb, with a cross following them; the head of two of them reaches to heaven, the head of the other overpasses the heavens. (3) Protevangelium of James. Mary is brought up in the temple, dedicated as a virgin from the age of three. (4) Acts of John. John, on finding bedbugs in his bed at an inn, commands the bugs to leave and behave themselves. (5) Acts of Paul. Paul baptizes a lion, who later spares him from death in an amphitheater at Ephesus.[10]

As we can see from the few examples given to us from Lightfoot, the apocryphal  writings are very different from the canonical writings. The apocryphal books are not written by any of the people they claim as authors, and were penned about 150 C.E. and later. The picture portrayed in these Pseudepigraphal gospels of Jesus and Christianity is nothing like the canonical Gospels.

The Gospel of Thomas has Jesus saying that he will transform Mary into a man so that she would be eligible to enter the Kindom of heaven. The apocryphal Acts of Paul and Acts of Peter stress complete self-denial of sexual intercourse and even portray the apostles as advising women to separate from their husbands. The Gospel of Judas portrays Jesus as laughing at his disciples for praying to God in reference to a meal. Of course, these are in contrary to what we find in the canonical books.—Mark 14:22; 1 Corinthians 7:3-5; Galatians 3:28; Hebrews 7:26.

Numerous apocryphal writings reflect the beliefs of the Gnostics.[11]  They believe that the Creator, Jehovah God was evil. In addition, they believed that the resurrection is not literal because to them physical matter is also evil. Also, they believed that it was Satan, who was behind marriage and procreation.

Apocryphal and Apostasy Prophecy

Acts 20:30 English Standard Version (ESV)

30 and from among your own selves will arise men speaking twisted things, to draw away the disciples after them.

2 Thessalonians 2:3, 6-7 English Standard Version (ESV)

3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction. 6 And you know what is restraining him now so that he may be revealed in his time. 7 For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work. Only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way.

1 Timothy 4:1-3 English Standard Version (ESV)

1 Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons, 2 through the insincerity of liars whose consciences are seared, 3 who forbid marriage and require abstinence from foods that God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth.

2 Peter 2:1 English Standard Version (ESV)

1 But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction.

John 2:18-19 English Standard Version (ESV)

18 Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. Therefore we know that it is the last hour. 19 They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us. But they went out, that it might become plain that they all are not of us.

1 John 4:1-3 English Standard Version (ESV)

1 Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. 2 By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, 3 and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard was coming and now is in the world already.

More could have been listed, but in the above, you will find numerous warnings about a coming apostasy. The apostles were to be a restraint to this great apostasy that was coming. As long as they were alive, it would not fully infiltrate and cause divisions. However, as we see, John tells us that at the time of his writing, it was “the last hour,” meaning that he was about 98 years old, serving as the last restraint, and his death was imminent. Therefore, in essence, he was in the last hour of his life. Is it mere coincidence that all of the more than fifty Pseudepigraphal gospels started to be penned within decades of John’s death?

Some liberal scholars get overly absorbed in them, because they go back to 150 C.E. forward, meaning that they are very early. However, what if scholars almost 2,000 years from now were to look back to 2012, and gather up a bunch of tabloid magazines. Just because they date back almost 2,000 years to the time in American history that they are interested in, would the gossip and lies within them be accepted as historical facts, simply because the dated early to the beginning of the 21st century?

That would hardly be the case. Therefore, we should see the more than fifty Pseudepigraphal gospels as nothing but tabloid gossip trying to be passed off as official Gospels, such as the claim Jesus married Mary Magdalene.

A Scrap of Historical Criticism

Would any Christian living in 1700 C.E. have ever doubted the Bible was the Word of God? Hardly! So how did historical criticism[12] (a principal aspect of higher criticism) become the predominant view among Bible scholars? All it took was for some leading professors at major universities to plant seeds of doubt within their students. Being at the entrance of the era of skepticism of the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, this historical criticism had a well-cultivated field in which to grow. You had liberal scholars mixing rationalism and Christianity. It created a domino effect as a few scholars produced a generation of students, who would then be the next generation of scholars, and so on.

As we moved into the twentieth century, these questions had become “facts” in the eyes of many; in fact, it became in vogue to challenge the Bible. Leading schools and leading scholars of historical criticism were the norm, and soon the conservative Christian was isolated. The twentieth-century student received a lean diet from those few scholars who still accepted God’s Word as just that, the Word of God, fully inerrant, with 40 writers of 66 books over a period of about 1,600 years. No, these students would now be fed mostly liberal theology, and any who disagreed were portrayed as ignorant and naïve. This planting of uncertainty or mistrust, with question after question bringing canonical books into doubt, with most literature focusing on this type of propaganda, would create the latest generation of scholars, and today they dominate the world of scholarship.

How did this progressive takeover come off without a hitch? The conservative scholarship of the mid-19th century to the early 20th century saw these liberal naysayers as nothing more than a fly at a picnic.[13] Most did not even deem it necessary to address their questions, so by 1950–1970, the historical criticism machine was in full throttle. It was about this same time that the sleeping giant finally woke to find that conservative scholarship had taken a backseat to this new creature, liberal scholarship. It is only within the last 30–40 years that some very influential conservative scholars have started to publish books in a move to dislodge this liberal movement.  Was it too little, too late?

It is possible to displace historical criticism, but many factors stand in the way. For one, any opposition is painted as uninformed and inexperienced regarding the subject matter. Moreover, the books that tear down the Bible with all their alleged critical analysis sell far better than those do that encourage putting faith in God’s Word. In addition, many conservative scholars tend to sit on the sideline and watch as a few leading scholars attempt to do the work of the many. In addition, there are liberal scholars continually putting out numerous articles and books, dominating the market. Unlike the conservative scholars in the first part of the twentieth century, these liberal scholars in the first part of the twenty-first century are not slowing down. Moreover, they have become more aggressive. I will not make the possible correlation, but will only mention that early textual scholarship of the 19th century believed that it was possible to restore the original text. As liberal scholarship has overrun our universities throughout the last one hundred and fifty years, is it a mere coincidence that now many textual scholars do not talk about getting back to the original, but to the earliest form, and other middle of the road scholars are just more careful in their commitments? Since this is the crucial point that Misquoting Jesus is really all about, we will address this briefly one more time in our concluding section.

Getting Back to the Original

 When we discuss getting back to the original, it is really the originals, because each of the books was penned outside of each other, and had their own history of being copied and recopied. We do not find the New Testament as a whole until the fourth century. As we discussed earlier, the Sinaiticus manuscript (325 C.E.) contains the whole New Testament, and the Vaticanus manuscript (350 C.E.) did at one time as well. As you may recall, up until the fourth-century, there were many groupings that circulated together, such as P72 (Peter’s letters and Jude),  or P45 (Gospels with Acts), or P46 (Paul’s letters). In fact, individual books have been copied by themselves as well: P1 (Matthew), P88 (Mark), P69 (Luke), P5 (John), or P18 (Revelation). Therefore, each of the books needs to be recovered based on itself, and the manuscripts that would be most beneficial to its recovery.

It is the papyrus manuscripts of the second and third-centuries C.E. that is going to get back to the original(s). These manuscripts are 50 to 240 years older than our famed Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts. Westcott and Hort were the pioneers to the idea of creating a critical text that, to them was the original(s). Of course, they did not have the papyri that we have today. Kurt Aland of the Nestle-Aland text is of the same mind as well, as he writes in his The Text of the New Testament, where he writes that the NA text “comes closer to the original text of the New Testament than did Tischendorf or Westcott and Hort, not to mention Von Sodon.” (K. a. Aland 1987, 24) Some textual scholars today will look down on any scholar suggesting such and idea.

If you think about the families of manuscripts that we have discussed thus far in this book (Western, Byzantine, Caesarean, and Alexandrian), it is the Alexandrian family that makes up the earliest manuscripts, the Egyptian text if you will. Therefore, many textual scholars shrink back from the idea that the early church manuscripts were reflective of the Egyptian New Testament text. Kurt Aland has successfully dealt with this criticism by stating that “(1) we are not sure if all of the papyri discovered in Egypt actually originated in Egypt and (2) that the text typically called the Egyptian text (as opposed to the ‘Western’ or Byzantine text) was the text displayed in the writings of the early church fathers who lived outside of Egypt―Such as Irenaeus, Marcion, and Hippolytus. (Bruce, Packer, et al. 1992, 2003, 203)

The modern man tends to believe that the ancient world was isolated from one another because travel was nothing like today. In the first three centuries, Christians benefited from the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace, with its law and order, good roads, and relatively safe maritime travel. The stable rule of law and order, the good roads, and the relatively safe maritime travel created an environment that favored the expansion of Christianity throughout the whole of the Roman Empire.[14]

Historically, we know that there as a church in Alexandria, Egypt as early as 100 C.E. Pantaenus (was a Christian theologian who became the head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 160-180 C.E. The fourth-century church historian Eusebius informs us that the school was already there and that Pantaenus simply took over. When Pantaenus left, it was Clement (c.150-c. 215), who then replaced him as head of the school. Around 200 C.E. Clement had built the Alexandrian school into a well-educated Christian center, which brought with it a thriving community as well.

Historically, we also know that there were Christian communities far south of Alexandria as well, in such rural places as Fayum and Oxyrhynchus, as early as 110-125 C.E. This is the area where almost all of our papyri come from. The dry air preserved the manuscripts, which would not have survived the moisture of Alexandria. Moreover, the library in Alexandria had been destroyed twice. As we have argued twice now, agreeing with Kurt Aland, Philip Comfort, and other textual scholars, if we were to find second-century manuscripts in other parts of the Roman Empire, they would resemble the Egyptian text.


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THE POWER OF GODTHE POWER OF GOD: The Word That Will Change Your Life Today 

Yes, God will be pleased to give you strength. He even gives “extraordinary power” to those who are serving him. (2 Cor. 4:7) Do you not feel drawn to this powerful Almighty God, who uses his power in such kind and principled ways? God is certainly a “shield for all those who take refuge in him.” (Psalm 18:30) You understand that he does not use his power to protect you from all tragedy now. He does, however, always use his protective power to ensure the outworking of his will and purpose. In the long run, his doing so is in your best interests. Andrews shares a profound truth …


All of us will go through difficult times that we may not fully understand. The apostle Paul wrote, “in the last days difficult times will come.” (2 Tim. 3:1) Those difficulties are part of the human imperfection (Rom. 5:12) and living in a fallen world that is ruled by Satan (2 Cor. 4:3-4). But when we find ourselves in such a place, it’s crucial that we realize God has given us a way out. (1 Cor. 10:13) Edward Andrews writes that if we remain steadfast in our faith and apply God’s Word correctly when we go through difficult times, we will not only grow spiritually, but we will …

AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY_UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN BIBLE PROPHECY: The Kings of the North & South of Daniel and the Seven Kings of Revelation 

Why should you be interested in the prophecy recorded by Daniel in chapter 11 of the book that bears his name? The King of the North and the King of the South of Daniel are locked in an all-out conflict for domination as a world power. As the centuries pass, turning into millenniums, …

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a DifferenceYOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE: Why and How Your Christian Life Makes a Difference

The theme of Andrews’ new book is YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE. As a Christian, you touch the lives of other people, wherein you can make a positive difference. Men and women of ancient times such as David, Nehemiah, Deborah, Esther, and the apostle Paul had a positive influence on others …

TURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a DifferenceTURN OLD HABITS INTO NEW HABITS: Why and How the Bible Makes a Difference

Many have successfully conquered bad habits and addictions by applying suggestions found in the Bible and by seeking help from God through prayer. You simply cannot develop good habits and kick all your bad ones overnight. See how to establish priorities. Make sure that your new habits …

GOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult TimesGOD WILL GET YOU THROUGH THIS: Hope and Help for Your Difficult Times

It may seem to almost all of us that we are either entering into a difficult time, living in one, or just getting over one and that we face one problem after another. This difficulty may be the loss of a loved one in death or a severe marriage issue, a grave illness, the lack of a job, or …

FEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last DaysFEARLESS: Be Courageous and Strong Through Your Faith In These Last Days

The world that you live in today has many real reasons to be fearful. Many are addicted to drugs, alcohol, bringing violence into even the safest communities. Terrorism has plagued the world for more than a decade now. Bullying in schools has caused many teen suicides. The divorce rate …

JOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the WorldJOHN 3:16: For God So Loved the World

John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has also been called the “Gospel in a nutshell,” because it is considered a summary of the central theme of traditional Christianity. Martin Luther called John 3:16 “The heart of the Bible, the Gospel in …

THE BOOK OF JAMES: CPH New Testament Commentary, Vol. 17 (An Apologetic and Background Exposition of the Holy Scriptures) CPH New Testament CommentaryTHE BOOK OF JAMES (CPH New Testament Commentary 17)

…about God and his personal revelation, allowing it to change our lives by drawing closer to God. The Book of James volume is written in a style that is easy to understand. The Bible can be difficult and complex at times. Our effort herein is to make it easier to read and understand, while …

THE OUTSIDER: Coming-of-Age In This MomentTHE OUTSIDER Coming-of-Age In This Moment

THE OUTSIDER is a Coming-of-Age book. SECTION 1 Surviving Sexual Desires and Love will cover such subjects as What Is Wrong with Flirting, The Pornography Deception, Peer Pressure to Have Sexual Relations, Coping With Constant Sexual Thoughts, Fully Understanding Sexting, Is Oral Sex …


Who should read THIRTEEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP LIVING? Anyone who is struggling with their walk as a young person. Anyone who has a friend who is having difficulty handling or coping with their young life, so you can offer them the help they need. Any parent who has young ones. And …

WAGING WAR: A Christian's Cognitive Behavioral Therapy WorkbookWAGING WAR: A Christian’s Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workbook

Waging War is a guide to start the youth with the most basic information and work pages to the culmination of all of the facts, scripture, and their newly gained insight to offer a more clear picture of where they are and how to change their lives for the better. Every chapter will have …


DOZENS OF QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED: Why is prayer necessary? What must we do to be heard by God? How does God answer our prayers? Does God listen to all prayers? Does God hear everyone’s prayers? What may we pray about? Does the Father truly grant everything we ask for? What kind …

HUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For UsHUMAN IMPERFECTION: While We Were Sinners Christ Died For Us

There are many reasons the Christian view of humanity is very important. The Christian view of humanity believes that humans were created in the image of God. We will look at the biblical view of humanity. We are going to look at the nature of man, the freedom of man, the personality of …

FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition]FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART SO I AM: Combining Biblical Counseling with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [Second Edition] 

In FOR AS I THINK IN MY HEART – SO I A M, Edward D. Andrews offers practical and biblical insights on a host of Christian spiritual growth struggles, from the challenge of forgiveness to eating disorders, anger, alcoholism, depression, anxiety, pornography, masturbation, same-sex …

APPLYING GOD'S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]APPLYING GOD’S WORD MORE FULLY: The Secret of a Successful Christian Life [Second Edition]

There is a genuine happiness, contentment, and joy, which come from reading, studying and applying God’s Word. This is true because the Scriptures offer us guidance and direction that aids us in living a life that coincides with our existence as a creation of Almighty God. For example, we …

PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]PUT OFF THE OLD PERSON: Put On the New Person [Second Edition]

THERE IS ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Christian living books by Andrews and those by others. Generally speaking, his books are filled with Scripture and offer its readers what the Bible authors meant by what they penned. In this publication, it is really God’s Word offering the counsel, …

Walking With Your God_Second EditionWALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD: Putting God’s Purpose First in Your Life [Second Edition]

A clean conscience brings us inner peace, calmness, and a profound joy that is seldom found in this world under the imperfection of fallen flesh that is catered to by Satan, the god of the world. Many who were formerly living in sin and have now turned their life over to God, they now know this amazing relief and are able today to hold a good and clean conscience as they carry out the will of the Father. WALK HUMBLY WITH YOUR GOD, has been written to help its readers to find that same joy, to have and maintain a good, clean conscience in their lives. Of course, it is incapable of covering every detail that one would need to consider and apply in their lives …

WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS: How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?WIVES BE SUBJECT TO YOUR HUSBANDS How Should Wives Treat Their Husbands?

This book is primarily for WIVES, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. WIVES will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: WIVES BE SUBJECT TO …

HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?HUSBANDS LOVE YOUR WIVES: How Should Husbands Treat Their Wives?

This book is primarily for HUSBANDS, but wives will greatly benefit from it as well. HUSBANDS will learn to use God’s Word to construct a solid and happy marriage. The Creator of the family gives the very best advice. Many have been so eager to read this new publication: HUSBANDS LOVE …


Technological and societal change is all around us. What does the future hold? Trying to predict the future is difficult, but we can get a clue from the social and technological trends in our society. The chapters in this book provide a framework as Christians explore the uncharted territory in our world of technology and social change.


Government affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to politics and government. This book provides an overview of the biblical principles relating to what the apostle Paul calls “governing authorities” (i.e., government) with specific chapters dealing with the founding principles of the American government. This includes an examination of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Federalist Papers.


Economics affects our daily lives, and Christians need to think about how to apply biblical principles to money, investment, borrowing, and spending. They also need to understand the free enterprise system and know how to defend capitalism. Chapters in this book not only look at broad economic principles, but a section of the book is devoted to the challenges we face in the 21st century from globalization and tough economic times. A section of the book also provides an in-depth look at other important social and economic issues (gambling, welfare) that we face every day

Christian Apologetics and Evangelism


Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or the church, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” Ours is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the truthfulness of his Word, the Bible. A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION of REASONABLE FAITH is on healing for the elements of emotional doubt. However, much attention is given to more evidenced-based chapters in our pursuit of overcoming any fears or doubts that we may have or that may creep up on us in the future.

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus ChristTHE GREAT TEACHER JESUS CHRIST: What Made Jesus Christ’s Teaching, Preaching, Evangelism, and Apologetics Outstanding Effective?

How can you improve your effectiveness as teachers? Essentially, it is by imitating THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ. You may wonder, ‘But how can we imitate Jesus?’ ‘He was the perfect, divine, Son of God.’ Admittedly, you cannot be a perfect teacher. Nevertheless, regardless of your abilities, you can do your best to imitate the way Jesus taught. THE GREAT TEACHER: Jesus Christ will discuss how you can employ all of his teaching methods.


How true is the Old Testament? For over two centuries Biblical scholars have held to the so-called documentary hypothesis, namely, that Genesis-Deuteronomy was not authored by Moses, but rather by several writers, some of whom lived centuries after Moses’ time. How have many scholars …

Agabus CoverDEFENDING AGABUS AS A NEW TESTAMENT PROPHET: A Content-Based Study of His Predictions In Acts by Sung Cho

Agabus is a mysterious prophetic figure that appears only twice in the book of Acts. Though his role is minor, he is a significant figure in a great debate between cessationists and continualists. On one side are those who believe that the gift of prophecy is on par with the inspired Scriptures, infallible, and has ceased. On the other side are those who define it as fallible and non-revelatory speech that continues today in the life of the church. Proponents of both camps attempt to claim …

WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIEWHAT WILL HAPPEN IF YOU DIE?: Should You Be Afraid of Death or of People Who Have Died?

People grow old, get sick, and die. Even some children die. Should you be afraid of death or of anybody who has died? Do you know what happens if we die? Will you ever see your dead loved ones again? “If a man dies, shall he live again?” asked the man Job long ago. (Job 14:14) Did God originally intend for humans to die? Why do you grow old and die? What is the Bible’s viewpoint of death? What is the condition of the dead? Are the dead aware of what is happening around them? What hope is there for the dead?


Islam is making a significant mark in our world. It is perhaps the fastest-growing religion in the world. It has become a major obstacle to Christian missions. And Muslim terrorists threaten the West and modern democracies. What is the history of Islam? What do Muslims believe? Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God? Why do we have this clash of civilizations? Is sharia law a threat to modern democratic values? How can we fight terrorists in the 21st century? These are significant questions that deserve thoughtful answers …

IS THE QURAN The WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GOD?: Is Islam the One True Faith?

IS THE QURAN THE WORD OF GODIs Islam the One True Faith? This book covers the worldview, practices, and history of Islam and the Quran. This book is designed as an apologetic evangelistic tool for Christians, as they come across Muslims in their daily lives, as well as to inform …

REASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and MindREASONS FOR FAITH: The First Apologetic Guide For Christian Women on Matters of The Heart, Soul, and Mind

If you have the desire to become better equipped to reach others for the lost or to strengthen your faith, Judy Salisbury’s guide—written specifically to meet the needs of Christian women today—offers you a safe, practical, and approachable place to start. In her lively, …

BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism?BIBLICAL CRITICISM: What are Some Outstanding Weaknesses of Modern Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism of the Bible got started in earnest, known then as Higher Criticism, during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is also known as the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation. Are there any weakness to the Historical-Critical Method of biblical interpretation …


Biblical criticism is an umbrella term covering various techniques for applying literary historical-critical methods in analyzing and studying the Bible and its textual content. Biblical criticism is also known as higher criticism, literary criticism, and historical criticism. Biblical …

CHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of PersuasionCHRISTIAN APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion

APOLOGETICS: Reaching Hearts with the Art of Persuasion by Edward D. Andrews, author of seventy-two books, covers information that proves that the Bible is accurate, trustworthy, fully inerrant, and inspired by God for the benefit of humankind. The reader will be introduced to Christan …

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses: Examining the History of the Watchtower Translation and the Latest Revision

REVIEWING 2013 New World Translation of Jehovah’s Witnesses is going to challenge your objectivity. Being objective means that personal feelings or opinions do not influence you in considering and representing facts. Being subjective means that your understanding is based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or ideas. If the reader finds these insights offense, it might be a little mind control at work from years of being told the same misinformation repeatedly, so ponder things objectively …

REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES: Sharing CHRIST as You Help Others to Learn about the Mighty works of God

Use of REASONING FROM THE SCRIPTURES should help you to cultivate the ability to reason from the Scriptures and to use them effectively in assisting others to learn about “the mighty works of God.” – Acts 2:11. If Christians are going to be capable, powerful, efficient teachers of God’s Word, we must not only pay attention to what we tell those who are interested but also how we tell them. Yes, we must focus our attention on…

REASONING WITH THE WORLD’S VARIOUS RELIGIONS: Examining and Evangelizing Other Faiths

God’s will is that “all sorts of men should be saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth.” (1 Tim. 2:4) God has assigned all Christians the task of proclaiming the Word of God, teaching, to make disciples. (Matt. 24:15; 28:19-20: Ac 1;8 That includes men and women who profess a non-Christian religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam to mention just a few. If there are Hindus, Buddhist or Muslims are in your community, why not initiate a conversation with them? Christians who take the Great Commission seriously cannot afford to ignore these religions…

CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM: Defending the Faith, Reasoning from the Scriptures, Explaining and Proving, Instructing in Sound Doctrine, and Overturning False Reasoning, [Second Edition]CONVERSATIONAL EVANGELISM, [Second Edition]

Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

FLEECING THE FLOCK_03FLEECING THE FLOCK: Setting the People of God Free From the Lies of Tithing

Evangelist Norman Robertson claims that “Tithing is God’s way of financing His kingdom on the earth.” He asserts that “It is His system of economics which enables the Gospel to be preached.” Not bashful about telling his followers of their duty to give, he flatly states: ‘Tithing isn’t something you do because you can afford it. It is an act of obedience. Not tithing is a clear violation of God’s commandments. It is embezzlement.’ Most likely you accept that giving should be part of Christian worship. However, …

Deception In the ChurchDECEPTION IN THE CHURCH: Does It Matter How You Worship?

DECEPTION IN THE CHURCH by Fred DeRuvo asks Does It Matter How You Worship? There are 41,000 different denominations that call themselves “Christian” and all would claim that they are the truth. Can just any Christian denomination please God? Can all be true or genuine Christianity if they all have different views on the same Bible doctrines? DeRuvo will answer. He will focus on the largest part of Christianity that has many different denominations, the charismatic, ecstatic Signs and Wonders Movements. These ecstatic worshipers claim … DeRuvo will answer all these questions and more according to the truth of God’s Word.—John 8:31-32; 17:17.

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …


church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …


Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

AN ENCOURAGING THOUGHT The Christian Worldview

An Encouraging Thought elucidates the ways in which Tolkien’s The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are informed by and communicate a biblical worldview. This book will help readers appreciate the ways in which a biblical worldview informs Tolkien’s work, to the end that their own faith may be confirmed in strength, focused in understanding, deepened in joy, and honed in its ability to communicate the Gospel.

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Daily Devotionals


Young ones and teens, you are exposed to complex problems that your parents may not understand. Young Christians, you are bombarded with multiple options for solving everyday problems through social media. Where do you turn to find answers? Where can you look to find guidance from Scripture? In order to provide a Christian perspective to problem-solving, the author of this devotional book decided to take a different approach.


This devotional book follows the author’s own faith journey back to God. Significant life events can shake our world and distort our faith. Following life’s tragedies, a common reaction is to become angry with God or to reject Him altogether. Examples of tragedies or traumas include life-changing events such as physical or sexual assault, destruction of one’s home, the tragic death of a loved one, diagnoses of terminal diseases, divorce, miscarriages, or being a victim of a crime. Tragedies or traumas can cause feelings of anxiety, depression, shame, and guilt.


Throughout the book, common themes emerge to support caregivers. The reader will find interesting Bible Scriptures, offering a Christian perspective, for handling issues that may arise. These inspiring passages will assist the caregiver in finding peace and faith as they travel their journey as a caregiver. Although caregivers may not know how long they will play this role, they take on the responsibility without any question. Taking care of others is often mentioned in the Bible and, as noted in this devotional, this self-sacrificing, highly valued, and often challenging service will ultimately be rewarded.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL Daily Musings From the Old Testament

Humans must breathe in the air of our atmosphere to survive. Many cities because of pollution face a dangerous level of contamination in their air. However, an even more deadly air affects both Christians and nonChristians. Ordinary methods or devices cannot detect this poisonous air.

DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musing From the New Testament

Paul counseled, “Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.” (Col. 3:2) It is, for this reason, Marshall has penned the DAILY DEVOTIONAL: Daily Musings From the New Testament, which can help us be protected against Satan’s efforts at controlling our mind and heart.  For each day of the year, DAILY DEVOTIONAL provides a Daily Bible Reading and comments for consideration.

BREAD OF HEAVEN: Daily Meditations on Scripture

BREAD OF HEAVEN helps the reader to have a greater understanding of the timeless truths of Scripture and a deeper appreciation of the grandeur of God. It offers meditations on selected Scriptures which will draw the reader’s attention upwards to the Savior.

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …


Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

[1] The word “canon” refers to the collection of Bible books that give convincing proof of being inspired of God. There are 66 books that are generally recognized as canonical and are an integral and indispensable part of God’s Word.

[2] Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1996), 301.

[3] The Medical Language of Luke, 1954, W. K. Hobart, pages xi-xxviii.

[4] arl F. H. Henry, God, Revelation and Authority, vol. 3: God Who Speaks and Shows: Fifteen Theses, Part Two, p. 47.

[5] Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1996), 210-11.

[6] J. I. Packer, God Speaks to Man, p. 81.

[7] Edward J. Young, The Canon of the Old Testament,” in Carl F. H. Henry, ed., Revelation and the Bible, p. 156.

[8] M. R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament, pages xi, xii.

[9] G. Milligan, The New Testament Documents, page 228.

[10] N. R. Lightfoot, How We Got the Bible, page 171

[11] A pre-Christian and early Christian religious movement teaching that salvation comes by learning esoteric spiritual truths that free humanity from the material world, believed in this movement to be evil.

[12] Historical criticism comprises several disciplines, which include: (1) Source criticism, (2) Form criticism, (3) Redaction criticism, (4) Traditional criticism, (5) Radical criticism, to mention just a few.

[13] This is not to say that the 19th and early 20th century did not have any apologist defending against biblical criticism. There were some giants in this field, like R. A. Torrey, and many others.

[14] Areas touched by the Gospel in the first-century alone: SPAIN, ITALY, MALTA, Mediterranean Sea, ILLYRICUM, MESOPOTAMIA, MEDIA, PARTHIA, Caspian Sea, ELAM, ARABIA, Cyrene, LIBYA, EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, Red Sea.