THE EARLY CHRISTIAN COPYISTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT MISREPRESENTING JESUS_Third Edition The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2

Authored by Leland Ryken, Wheaton College

Interviewed By Christian Publishing House

Prior to 2001, Dr. Leland Ryken, a professor of English at Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois, served on the translation committee as their literary stylist for the 2001—English Standard Version. He has penned numerous books on the different theories of Bible Translation: such as The Word of God in English and Understanding English Bible Translation. Christian Publishing House has posted several articles in defense of the literal translation being the preferred Bible for study and research, as well as daily reading and memorization, has often referred to Ryken’s books. In fact, he has penned numerous articles for our magazine. In the last seven decades, dynamic equivalent (thought-for-thought) translation advocates have flooded the market with easy to read Bible translations that focus on the reader, not the text, which has literally threatened the integrity of God’s Word, and Ryken, has been at the forefront of defending the arguments the dynamic equivalent advocates have raised. Critics have accused him of misleading the reader by not giving all the facts—being unbalanced or subjective in his views—as he is clouded by his personal opinions. Others claim that his reasoning is not rational. Bible Translation Magazine has interviewed Professor Ryken to learn why his books and articles have caused such a stir.

Below is the conversation Bible Translation Magazine (BTM) had with Dr. Ryken:

 CPH: What is the goal of Bible translation?

Leland Ryken: The goal of Bible translation is to take readers as close as possible to the actual words that the biblical authors wrote.  The translation process that this viewpoint produces is called verbal equivalence, which means that every word in the original Hebrew or Greek text is rendered by an equivalent or corresponding English word or phrase.  The goal of Bible translation is: be transparent to the original text—to see as clearly as possible what the biblical authors actually wrote.

CPH: What is the process of Bible translation?

Leland Ryken: Bible translation starts by ascertaining what Hebrew or Greek manuscript family comes closest to what the biblical authors wrote.  Since no copies of the original manuscripts exist, this first step is not as easy as one would hope.  Secondly, there is the lexical question of what the words in the Hebrew and Greek texts meant when the authors wrote.  Thirdly, translators need to determine the most accurate English words and phrases by which to render the Hebrew and Greek words.  This includes (a) avoiding English words that have the wrong meanings and connotations, and (b) choosing the most accurate English words and phrases.

King James Bible The Complete Guide to Bible Translation-2 Do We Still Need a Literal Bible-2

CPH: Why is there always a need for new translations?

Leland Ryken: The need for new translations arises from the nature of language.  Language is always in the process of changing.  New words enter the vocabulary of every language.  Words that are no longer regularly used become obsolete and archaic.  Often the meanings of words change.  Even fashions in syntax (the order of items in a sentence) can change.  Eventually, these changes produce a situation in which evolving language moves out from under every translation.

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CPH: What is the basic history of the English Bible?

Leland Ryken: Before I note the landmark Bible translations, I need to say something about the philosophy of translation that dominated English Bible translation from the beginning to the middle of the twentieth century.  No major translation between Tyndale’s New Testament of 1526 and the RSV of 1952 deviated from the view that the goal of English Bible translation is to provide a corresponding English word or phrase for every word in the Hebrew or Greek texts of the Bible.  Tyndale coined many English words in order to render exactly what the Hebrew and Greek texts contained.  The history of English Bible translation as we know it began with William Tyndale.  Five translations stand between Tyndale and the King James Version of 1611.  The most important of them was the Geneva Bible of 1560.  The King James Version then completely dominated the scene until the middle of the twentieth century, when a new translation philosophy known as dynamic equivalence swept the field, though of course there remained advocates of essentially literal translation.  After half a century of dominance by dynamic equivalence, the pendulum began to swing back in the direction of verbal equivalence at the turn of the century.

CPH: What are the differences among an interlinear translation, a literal translation, a dynamic equivalent translation, and a paraphrase?

Leland Ryken: Those four categories name the continuum from literal to free.  An interlinear translation is completely literal concerning both vocabulary and syntax.  An essentially literature translation gives an English equivalent for every word in the original, resorting to a substitute only when a literal rendering makes no sense.  Dynamic equivalent translators feel no obligation to find an English equivalent for every word in the original Hebrew and Greek texts; if the text says “he anoints my head with oil,” a dynamic equivalent translation might read “he treats me as an honored guest.”  Paraphrases often bear little resemblance to what the biblical authors wrote (for example, the statement in Psalm 19 that God’s law is “sweeter than honey” becomes “you’ll like it better than strawberries in spring” (The Message).

CPH: What is the difference between what a text says and what a text means?

Leland Ryken: What a text says is what the author wrote, rendered into the best English equivalent.  Translators divide on the question of what the text means.  Essentially literal translators assume that a biblical author meant what he said, so if they give an English equivalent of the words of the original author, they have also stated the author’s meaning.  Dynamic equivalent translators operate on the premise that meaning exists independent of the words of the original author.  The most helpful way of understanding this is that dynamic equivalent translators feel free to add the activities of a commentator or interpreter to the task of translation.  That is really the crux of the difference between the rival translation philosophies.  I myself believe that it is inaccurate to call a dynamic equivalent Bible a translation; it is a translation plus a commentary plus the product a heavy editorial hand.  To illustrate, Philippians 4:1 contains the phrase “my joy and crown.”  Essentially literal translators believe that those words contain what the author meant.  Dynamic equivalent translators abandon the words of the original (“joy and crown”) and substitute an exposition of the original text:  “how happy you make me, and how proud I am of you” (Good News Bible).

THE GREAT TEACHER Jesus Christ Why Me_ THE APOSTLE PAUL

CPH: Those who favor dynamic equivalence say that “all translation is interpretation.”  Is this true?

Leland Ryken: The motto that “all translation is interpretation” is the most abused formula in translation, and a moratorium should be called on its use.  All translation is lexical interpretation, that is, deciding what English word or phrase best expresses the Hebrew or Greek word in the original text.  However, this is not what dynamic equivalent translators chiefly have in mind.  What they mean by the phrase is that all translators add commentary to what the Hebrew and Greek texts say.  This is patently untrue of essentially literal translations.

CPH: At what point does a translation infringe on the intention of the author?

Do We Still Need a Literal Bible-2Leland Ryken: Let me begin by describing the history of dynamic equivalence.  When Eugene Nida’s new philosophy became the norm in the middle of the twentieth century, the very newness of the venture served as a curb on taking excessive liberty with the biblical text.  The original NIV of 1978 is a conservative version of dynamic equivalence.  In passing, I will say that despite the fact the original NIV is a relatively mild form of dynamic equivalence, I lay a lot of blame on the NIV for having gotten the direction of modern Bible translation set in the wrong direction.  Once the NIV made dynamic equivalence “mainstream,” we can trace an arc of increasing departure from what the original authors wrote in this family of Bible translations.  As I look at this arc of increasing distance from the Hebrew and Greek texts, I infer that the quest to be new and different became part of the picture.  Successive waves of translators seem to have set out to see how innovative (and in some cases daring) they could be.  The ultimate terminus of this is, of course, Eugene Peterson’s The Message.

To return to the original question, I believe that the moment translators adopt dynamic equivalence as their methodology they have infringed on the biblical authors’ intention.  Surely, the biblical writers wrote what they intended to write (and us to read).  I have often wondered how dynamic equivalent translators would respond if others did with their scholarly writings what these translators do with the biblical authors.  I think they would go into orbit.

CPH: What are some liberties that dynamic equivalent translators take?

Leland Ryken: They are well documented in both the practice of dynamic equivalent translators and in their statements of philosophy.  Here are the liberties that dynamic equivalent translators regularly take:

(1) replace what the original authors wrote with something else (e.g., where the text says “establish the work of our hands,” dynamic equivalent translations substitute “let all go well for us”);

(2) change figurative statements into direct statements (again a substitution);

(3) add interpretive commentary to what the biblical authors wrote, so readers do not know what was in the original and what was added;

(4) make the style of the English Bible contemporary and colloquial;

(5) reduce the vocabulary level of the original text;

(6) bring masculine gender references into line with modern feminist preferences.  In all these ways, dynamic equivalent translations give the public a substitute Bible.  I would also assert that the original authors of the Bible had the resources to state their content the way dynamic equivalent translators state it, but instead, they stated it as we find in the original texts of the Bible.  Dynamic equivalent translators take a condescending view of the authors of the Bible, treating them like inept writers who couldn’t state things accurately and therefore need correction.

CPH: What can you say about dynamic equivalence and the “dumbing down” in American culture?

Agabus CoverLeland Ryken: Dynamic equivalence is a particular manifestation of the whole drift of American culture during that past half century.  As a culture, we have been conducting an experiment in reducing expectations and standards.  I will note in passing that the stylistic level of easy-reading Bibles is exactly the same as what has happened to Christian music and church services.  When we consult the prefaces to dynamic equivalent translations, we find that the translators are explicit about the assumed low level of linguistic and intellectual level of their readers.  The sixth-grade threshold is widely accepted in these prefaces.  The logical conclusion is that readers cannot be educated beyond a sixth-grade level.  I would raise the question, In what other areas of life are we content with a sixth-grade level of attainment?

CPH: Has the dumbing down of Bible translations produced the well-attested biblical illiteracy that we find in the church and in the culture at large?

Leland Ryken: Some of the blame can be laid at the feet of easy-reading translations.  When I read these translations and (even more), hear them read in public, I feel a great letdown and say to myself that such a Bible does not capture my heart and allegiance.  A translation that reads like the chatter at the corner coffee shop is given the type of credibility that the chatter is given.  But quite apart from that, we need to acknowledge the damage done by the proliferation of Bible translations.  With so many contradictory renditions of the biblical text, the public has lost confidence that we can actually know what the Bible says. It is an easy step from this skepticism to an indifference about what the Bible says.

CPH: What responsibility lies with the reader?

Leland Ryken: Readers should aspire to what is excellent.  They should refuse to read a substitute Bible.  They should want a Bible that calls them to their higher selves—or to something higher than their current level of attainment.  I was raised on the King James Version.  As a youngster, I did not suffer from a great burden of unintelligibility in regard to the KJV.  I did not understand every word, but I remember experiencing that as something desirable.  I sensed that someday I would understand the words.

CPH: What about the greater difficulty of a translation like the New King James Version or the English Standard Version as opposed to easy reading translations, particularly with regard to children or people new to the Bible?

Leland Ryken: I believe that we should not immediately put an easy reading Bible into the hands of these groups.  My question has always been, What good is readability if what we are reading is not what the original authors wrote?  The Bible is not an easy book to read and understand.  It does not carry all its meaning on the surface.  As a result, a process of education is always going to be part of understanding the Bible.  The danger of giving an easy reading translation to someone is that the person will never move beyond it. Also, let me ask my question again:  in what other areas of life are we content with a sixth-grade level of comprehension?  Finally, in my experience, children fare just fine with the NKJV and the ESV.  The difficulties have been greatly exaggerated.  The latter named translations are also much easier to memorize.

CPH: How is a literal translation more faithful to the text than dynamic equivalent translations?

Leland Ryken: An essentially literal translation allows us to see what the biblical authors actually wrote.  Much of the time dynamic equivalent translations substitute something in place of what the authors wrote.  The prefaces to these translations are often quite explicit that the translators felt no obligation to give an English equivalent of what the biblical authors wrote.  I personally experience dynamic equivalent translations as an organized conspiracy to prevent readers from knowing what the biblical authors wrote.  As the years roll by, dynamic equivalent translations remove the Bible reading public farther and farther from the actual text of the Bible.

CPH: How does a dynamic equivalent translation deprive readers of the full interpretive potential of the original text?

Leland Ryken: Dynamic equivalent translations regularly make preemptive interpretive strikes, thereby removing the reader’s ability to know what the original authors wrote and what the interpretive options are.  Additionally, the more literary a text is, the more likely it is to embody multiple meanings in a given detail in the text.  Dynamic equivalent translators regularly reduce the multiple meanings to one by the way they translate a passage.  Dynamic equivalent translations are one-dimensional in places where the original is multi-dimensional.  Dynamic equivalent translators are like the priests in the Middle Ages:  they dole out to the public their preferred interpretation of the biblical text in a misguided effort to protect the public from what they think are incorrect interpretations.

CPH: How are most dynamic equivalent translations like a commentary rather than a translation?

Leland Ryken: They are like a commentary because they have an abundance of exposition or explanation mingled right in the text.  Sometimes this commentary takes the form of a substitution (for example, “my feet had nearly slipped” is translated as “my faith was almost gone”).  The other practice is to add an explanation to what the biblical authors wrote, as when the original says “my cup overflows” and a translation adds “my cup overflows with blessings.”

CPH: Do you see any usefulness in dynamic equivalent translations?

Leland Ryken: I do, but not as a translation of the original text.  I cannot trust dynamic equivalent translations to tell me what the biblical authors wrote.  I can use them as commentaries.  They give me a menu of options concerning the possible meanings of a biblical passage.  However, note that I said “menu of options.”  Dynamic equivalent translations are less helpful than regular commentaries because they give such a wide range of renditions of many passages.  They are all over the board.  Therefore, I occasionally consult a few dynamic equivalent translations when I find a difficult passage, but I am more inclined to consult the footnotes in a good study Bible.

CPH: At what point does a translation become too literal?

Leland Ryken: A translation needs to make sense in English.  If the original text contains idiomatic constructions that had an understood meaning in the original context but that make no sense in English, of course, translators need to “go dynamic.”  But essentially literal translators do this only in extreme situations—situations that are so few that they are perhaps statistically insignificant.  Essentially literal translators regard most idiomatic constructions as figurative or poetic statements that need to be preserved, not as foreign idioms that need to be eliminated.  I will just add in passing that dynamic equivalent translators have a uniformly low view of poetry and figurative language.

CPH: Which translation do you regard as most trustworthy and excellent?

Leland Ryken: I am a member of the translation committee of the English Standard Version, and I highly prefer it.  It has a double superiority over other translations.  First, it is accurate because it gives an equivalent English word or phrase for everything that biblical authors wrote.  At this level of accuracy, I have equal confidence in the New American Standard Bible and the New King James Version.  But the ESV has a stylistic superiority over those two translations.  The ESV retains the stylistic excellence of the King James Version and flows beautifully.

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Evangelism is the work of a Christian evangelist, of which all true Christians are obligated to partake to some extent, which seeks to persuade other people to become Christian, especially by sharing the basics of the Gospel, but also the deeper message of biblical truths. Today the …

THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST: Always Being Prepared to Make a Defense [Second Edition]

MOST Christian apologetic books help the reader know WHAT to say; THE CHRISTIAN APOLOGIST is HOW to communicate it effectively. The Christian apologist words should always be seasoned with salt as we share the unadulterated truths of Scripture with gentleness and respect. Our example …

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God's Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK: How All Christians Can Effectively Share God’s Word in Their Community, [SECOND EDITION]

THE EVANGELISM HANDBOOK is a practical guide (for real-life application) in aiding all Christians in sharing biblical beliefs, the Good News of the kingdom, how to deal with Bible critics, overturning false beliefs, so as to make disciples, as commanded by Christ. Matthew 24:14; …

YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]YOUR GUIDE FOR DEFENDING THE BIBLE: Self-Education of the Bible Made Easy [Third Edition]

The reader will receive eight small introductory books in this one publication. Andrews’ intention is to offer his reader several chapters on eight of the most critical subject areas of understanding and defending the Word of God. This will enable the reader to lay a solid foundation for …

THE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From WithinTHE CULTURE WAR: How the West Lost Its Greatness & Was Weakened From Within 

The Culture War. How the West lost its greatness and was weakened from within outlines how the West lost its values, causing its current decline. It is a forceful attack on the extreme liberal, anti-religious ideology which since the1960’s has permeated the Western culture and …

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus' Witnesses to the Ends of the EarthEARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY Jesus’ Witnesses to the Ends of the Earth

EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIRST CENTURY will give its readers a thrilling account of first-century Christianity. When and how did they come to be called Christians? Who are all obligated to be Christian evangelists? In what way did Jesus set the example for our evangelism? What is the …

CRISIS OF FAITH: Saving Those Who DoubtCRISIS OF FAITH Saving Those Who Doubt 

Inside of some Christians unbeknownst to their family, friends or congregation, they are screaming, “I doubt, I doubt, I have very grave doubts!” OURS is an age of doubt. Skepticism has become fashionable. We are urged to question everything: especially the existence of God and the …

Investigating Jehovah's Witnesses: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s WitnessesINVESTIGATING JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES: Why 1914 Is Important to Jehovah?s Witnesses

The intention of this book is to investigate the biblical chronology behind Jehovah’s Witnesses most controversial doctrinal position that Jesus began to rule invisibly from heaven in October 1914. This biblical chronology of the Witnesses hinges upon their belief that the destruction of …

Translation and Textual Criticism

THE COMPLETE GUIDE to BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition]THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION: Bible Translation Choices and Translation Principles [Second Edition] 

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BIBLE TRANSLATION (CGBT) is for all individuals interested in how the Bible came down to us, as well as having an insight into the Bible translation process. CGBT is also for those who are interested in which translation(s) would be the most beneficial to use.

CHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation DifferencesCHOOSING YOUR BIBLE: Bible Translation Differences

There are more than 150 different Bible translations in the English language alone. Some are what we call literal translations, which seeks to give the reader the exact English equivalent of what was written in the original language text, thus allowing the reader access to the actual Word …

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The Science and Art of Textual CriticismTHE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Science and Art of Textual Criticism

THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT was copied and recopied by hand for 1,500 years. Regardless of those scribes who had worked very hard to be faithful in their copying, errors crept into the text. How can we be confident that what we have today is the Word of God? Wilkins and Andrews …

MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman's "Misquoting Jesus" [Third Edition]MISREPRESENTING JESUS: Debunking Bart D. Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” [Third Edition]

Edward D. Andrews boldly answers the challenges Bart D. Ehrman alleges against the fully inerrant, Spirit-inspired, authoritative Word of God. By glimpsing into the life of Bart D. Ehrman and following along his course of academic studies, Andrews helps the reader to understand the …

Biblical Studies

HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of GodHOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE: Rightly Handling the Word of God

A comprehensive book on HOW TO STUDY YOUR BIBLE by observing, interpreting, and applying, which will focus on the most basic Bible study tools, principles, and processes for moving from an in-depth reading of the Scriptures to application. What, though, if you have long felt that you are …

THE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & ContentTHE NEW TESTAMENT: Its Background, Setting & Content

…the author’s intended meaning to his original readers and how that meaning can then apply to us. Marshall gives you what you need for deeper and richer Bible study. Dr. Lee M. Fields writes, “‘Deep’ study is no guarantee that mature faith will result, but shallow study guarantees …

THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST: What Do You Know About Jesus? [Updated and Expanded] 

The life of Christ is an exhaustless theme. It reveals a character of greater massiveness than the hills, of a more serene beauty than the stars, of sweeter fragrance than the flowers, higher than the heavens in sublimity and deeper than the seas in mystery. As good Jean Paul has …

THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded]THE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE PAUL: The Apostle to the Nations [Updated and Expanded] 

Stalker’s Life of St. Paul became one of the most widely read and respected biographies of the Apostle to the Gentiles. As an insightful compendium on the life of Paul, this work is of particular interest to pastors and teachers who desire to add realism and vividness to their account of …

INTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical HermeneuticsINTERPRETING THE BIBLE: Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics

Delving into the basics of biblical interpretation, Edward D. Andrews has provided a complete hands-on guide to understanding what the author meant by the words that he used from the conservative grammatical-historical perspective. He teaches how to study the Bible on a deep, scholarly …

HOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to HermeneuticsHOW TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE: An Introduction to Hermeneutics

…Linguistic and literary factors are analyzed so that the various genres of Scripture are examined for their true meaning. The importance of having sound principles of interpretation cannot be overstated as to ignore them will result in all manner of erroneous assumptions. Beville presents …

THE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern PeopleTHE CHURCH COMMUNITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE: Evangelism and Engagement with Postmodern People

Once upon a time, Postmodernism was a buzz word. It pronounced Modernism dead or at least in the throes of death. It was a wave that swept over Christendom, promising to wash away sterile, dogmatic and outmoded forms of church. But whatever happened to postmodernism? It was regarded …

DEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in RevelationDEVELOPING HEALTHY CHURCHES: A Case-Study in Revelation

church. It offers an appointment with the Great Physician that no Christian can afford to ignore. Developing Healthy ChurchesA Case-Study in Revelationbegins with a well-researched outline of the origins and development of the church health movement. With that background in mind the …

DYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideDYING TO KILL: A Christian Perspective on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

…liberties in a multi-cultural society that is becoming increasingly secular. This work provides an ethical framework in which euthanasia and assisted suicide can be evaluated. These issues are on the radar indicating a collision course with Christian values. It is time for Christians to be …

JOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK: Experience the Ministry of Jesus in a Spiritually Captivating WayJOURNEY WITH JESUS THROUGH THE MESSAGE OF MARK

Journey with Jesus through the Message of Mark is an insightful and engaging survey of Mark‘s Gospel, exploring each major section of the text along with key themes. It is a work that can be enjoyed by laypersons as well as pastors and teachers. Pastors will find the abundant use …

ANGELS & DEMONS: The Bible AnswersANGELS & DEMONS The Bible Answers

What are angels & demons? Can angels help us? What does the Bible say about angels? What is the truth about angels? Can Angels affect your life? Who were the “sons of God” in Genesis 6:2? Who were the Nephilim in Genesis 6:2? Who is Michael the archangel? Can Satan the Devil control …

Bible Doctrines

WHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHERE ARE THE DEAD? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What is the Bible’s viewpoint? Without delving into an endless stream of what man has said, Andrews looks at what the Bible says about death and the like. Why do we grow old and die? What happens at death? Is there life after death, or is this all there is? Do we have an immortal soul? …

IDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast RevealedIDENTIFYING THE ANTICHRIST: The Man of Lawlessness and the Mark of the Beast Revealed

Herein Andrews will give the reader exactly what the Bible offers on exposing who the Antichrist and the Man of Lawlessness are. If we look at the texts that refer to the antichrist and the man of lawlessness, we will have lines of evidence that will enable us to identify them. Why is it …

UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithUNDERSTANDING THE CREATION ACCOUNT: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Throughout the Scriptures, God is identified as the Creator. He is the One “who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it.” [Isa 45:18] He is the One “who forms mountains and creates the wind” (Am 4:13) and is the One “who made the heaven and …

The SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithThe SECOND COMING of CHRIST: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

The information herein is based on the disciples coming to Jesus privately, saying, “Tell us, (1) when will these things be, and (2) what will be the sign of your coming, and (3) of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24:3) What will end? When will the end come? What comes after the end? Who …

WHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithWHAT IS HELL? Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

What Really Is Hell? What Kind of Place is Hell? What Really Happens at Death? What Did Jesus Teach About Hell? How Does Learning the Truth About Hell Affect You? Who Goes to Hell? What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment? Does God Punish People in Hellfire? Do the Wicked Suffer in …

Miracles? - Do They Still Happen Today?: God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith HealingMIRACLES – DO THEY STILL HAPPEN TODAY? God Miraculously Saving People’s Lives, Apparitions, Speaking In Tongues, Faith Healing 

Miracles were certainly a part of certain periods in Bible times. What about today? Are miracles still taking place. There are some very important subjects that surround this area of discussion that are often misunderstood. Andrews will answer such questions as does God step in and solve …

HOMOSEXUALITY - The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian FaithHOMOSEXUALITY – The BIBLE and the CHRISTIAN: Basic Bible Doctrines of the Christian Faith

Today there are many questions about homosexuality as it relates to the Bible and Christians. What does the Bible say about homosexuality? Does genetics, environment, or traumatic life experiences justify homosexuality? What is God’s will for people with same-sex attractions? Does the …

Christian Fiction

THE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm's LengthTHE DIARY OF JUDAS ISCARIOT: How to Keep Jesus at Arm’s Length

…desert but none of such significance as a handful of scrolls retrieved from a buried Roman satchel (presumed stolen) at this site. The discovery has since come to be known as ‘The Diary of Judas Iscariot.’ In The Diary of JudasIscariot Owen Batstone relates the observations and feelings …

THE SECRET HIDEAWAYTHE SECRET HIDEAWAY ON BRIDGETON HILL

Rachael Garrison knows all the shrewd ways to successfully close multi-million-dollar real estate deals with her father’s famous New York real estate enterprise. But beyond her savvy to rake in huge deals is her premonition that an impending global takeover of the world’s financial wealth is on the horizon by evil leaders of The Great Ten Nations. From New York City to the Irish Hills of Michigan, and into the streets of Detroit her life takes on enormous purpose as

THE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed WrathTHE RAPTURE: God’s Unwelcomed Wrath

Kevin Trill struggles with the notion that he may have missed the Rapture. With nothing but the clothes on his back and a solid gold pocket watch, he sets off towards Garbor, a safe haven for those who haven’t yet taken the mark of thebeast. While on his way to Garbor, he meets up …

SEEKERS AND DECEIVERS: Which One are You? It Is Time to Join the Fight!

There grew an element in the valley that did not want to be ruled by the Light of the Word. Over time, they convinced the people to reject it. As they started to reject this Light, the valley grew dim and the fog rolled in. The people craved the darkness rather than the Light because they were evil. They did not want to  …

The Shadow Flames of Uluru: Book ONE in the CHAOS DOWN UNDER 

When an ancestor saddles them with the responsibility to purge Australia of a demon threatening to wipe our humanity with black flames, fraternal siblings Amber and Michael Hauksby lay their lives on the line. As the world crumbles around them into chaos, and ancient marsupials wreak havoc in their hometown, they must journey into …

WRITE PLACE, RIGHT TIME: The Pre-Apocalyptic Misadventure of a Freelance Journalist 

“Write Place, Right Time” follows the pre-apocalyptic misadventures of freelance journalist Don Lamplighter. While on what he expects to be a routine Monday night trip to a village board meeting, Lamplighter’s good nature compels him to help a stranded vehicle. Little does he know that by saving one of the car’s occupants, he sets forth a chain of what to him seem to be unrelated events where he must use his physical and social skills to save himself and others from precarious situations.

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